9th class english notes
CLASS – 9
SUBJECT – ENGLISH
LESSON 5 – ECHO AND NARCISSUS
ECHO AND NARCISSUS
— Moira Kerr and
Introduction : This story is based on a myth taken from Greek mythology p.the story introduced two characters namely echo and narcissus .both the words carry a meaning and are symbol of two things—echo is a repeatation of sound i.e . Resound and are narcissus is the name of a beautiful flower which bears beautiful smell or fragrance . The story carries 17 short and big paragraphs and has been adapted from the Greek mythology in English by Moira Kerr and JHON BENETT.
SUMMARY IN ENGLISH
1. Narcissus was a handsome young man. He was so beautiful that anybody who saw him, fell in love with him.
2. One day as Narcissus roamed in the forest with his hunting companions, he felt that someone was watching his movement. The watchful damsel was none but echo . Echo was known for her chattering ability . She could keep somebody engaged for hours and could talk on any subject . She had kept goddess hear engaged in casual tauks . Hera was at the point of stumbling upon Zeus in the course of love making . Hera due to this unwanted interruption from echo got highly annoyed and put curse on her . From that day echo could not utter anything and was able to repeat only last few words , she heard .
3. Echo,s trembling sound followed narcissus through the trees . She wanted to approach nearer to narcissus to see his beauty but was afraid that he would make mockery of her trembling speech.
4. Suddenly one day Narcissus lost his way in the woods and was separated from his companions. He got frightened and in panic called— ” Is there somebody here?” The echoing sound got repeated ” there “.
Narcissus shouted back — ” Come ! ” Echo again resounded “come!”
5. Being convinced that someone was playing trick on him he called —” Why are you avoiding me! ” His answers again got repeated from the jungle. Narcissus invited Echo to meet him and she responded positively. Echo came out of her hiding place but Narcissus roughly pushed her and ran away saying I would die before I would die before I would have you near me.
6. The nymph was so embarrassed that she hid herself in a dark cave and never came out in the light. Her beauty and youth Vanished and her body got shrunken.Nothing was left out of her body except the pathetic voice. This voice is still rocking the world over. Anxious to talk but was able to repeat what the others said or should and that is Echo.
7. Narcissus had to pay the price of his rudeness one day as he had played with the sentiments of so many girls, One of them prayed to Gods that Narcissus should pay she price of his doing and one day he will be despised by one he loved most.
8. One day what happened that Narcissus got extremely thirsty while out on hunting. He came down near a pool in which water was crystal clean and was still. As he bent down to drink water, he saw the reflection of a beautiful face in the still water of the pond. His heart trembled to see the image in the pool that he did not raise his eyes but from time to time only murmured the words of love.
9. At last his body withered away. It turned into a stem of flower. On the stem, appeared a head of a flower of golden colour with white blossom. This flower called Narcissus is even today visible in quite pools.
So this is the story of Echo [ resounding sound] which can be heard but can’t be seen. It had only speech without physical body.
10. This is a beautiful story taken from Greek mythology [पौराणिक कथा] to depict the sound of Echo which vibrates in the jungle woods, down hill and other places.
SUMMARY IN HINDI
भूमिका — ‘ इको और नार्सिसस’ शीर्षक कथा ग्रीक की एक पौराणिक कथा पर आधारित है। इस कथा के दो मुख्य पात्र हैं—एक का नाम है ‘इको ‘ और दूसरे का ‘नारसिसस ‘ । अगर गहराई से विचार किया जाय तो ये दोनों पात्र दो वस्तुओं के प्रतीक हैं — इको का अर्थ है प्रतिध्वनि और नार्सिसस नरगिस या जूही का फूल होता है। इस फूल में सौन्दर्य के साथ मादक गंध होती है। इस पूरी कथा को 17 छोटे – बड़े पाराग्राफ में समाहित किया गया है। ग्रीक कथा से अंग्रेजी में इसका रुपांतरण किया है — मोयरा केर और जाॅन बेनेट ने।
सारांश : 1. नार्सिसस एक अत्यंत सुंदर युवा था। उसके सौन्दर्य में इतना आकर्षण था कि जो भी उसे देखता वह मोहित हो जाता।
2. एक दिन नार्सिसस अपने शिकारी मित्रों साथ जंगल में भटक रहा था कि उसे ऐसा अहसास हुआ कि कोई उसका पीछा कर रहा है और उसके कार्यकलापों पर दृष्टि रख रहा है। उस पर दृष्टि रखने वाला अन्य नहीं बल्कि ‘इको’ थी। इको एक चपल बालिका थी और उसमें गजब की वाक- शक्ति थी। वह घंटों किसी भी विषय पर कहीं भी और किसी भी व्यक्ति से बात कर सकती थी। हेरा को इको का यह असामयिक व्यवहार कर गया और वह क्रोधित हो उठी । उसी क्षण देवी ने इको को शाप दिया —उस दिन से इको की वाकशक्ति चली गई और वह वाक्य के केवल अन्तिम शब्द ही दुहरा पाती थी।
3. उस दिन से इको की काँवती आवाज नार्सिसस का पीछा करती रहती । इको नार्सिसस को देखने के लिए उसके सामने उपस्थित होना चाहती थी पर उसे भय होता कि नार्सिसस उसकी काँपती आवाज सुनकर उसका मजाक न उड़ाये।
4.अचानक एक दिन नार्सिसस अपने साथियों से बिछुड़ गया और रास्ता भटक गया। उसे लगा कोई उसका पीछा कर रहा है। वह घबरा गया और उसने आवाज लगाई—’क्या यहाँ कोई है ?’ इस आवाज की प्रतिध्वनि हुई —मेरे पास आओ।
5. नार्सिसस को लगा कोई उसके साथ चल कर रहा है। उसने आवाज दी – तुम मेरी अवहेलना क्यों कर रहे हो ? जंगल के वृक्षों से टकराकर यही आवाज पुनः प्रतिध्वनित हुई।
नार्सिसस ने आवाज को उससे मिलने के लिए आमंत्रित किया। नार्सिसस ने उसे देखते ही उसे धक्का दिया और स्वयं पलायन कर गया। जाते-जाते उसने कहा तुमसे मिलने के पहले मैं मरना पसंद करुँगा।
6.इको के हृदय को आघात लगा। वह एक गुफा में छुप गयी जिसके अंदर गहरा अंधकार था। उसका शरीर गलने लगा। उसकी जवानी लुप्त हो गयी। उसके शरीर में एक काँपती आवाज के सिवा कुछ भी नहीं बचा । यह काँपती , गूंजती आवाज प्रतिध्वनि के रुप में आज भी सर्वत्र सुनाई देती है।
7. इधर नार्सिसस को अपनी करनी का फल एक दिन भोगना पड़ा। उसे श्राप मिला की वह उसी के द्वारा घृणित और उपेक्षित होगा जिसे वह सबसे प्यार करता होगा।
8. एक दिन जंगल में घूमते हुए नार्सिसस को बहुत प्रयास लगी । वह एक तालाब के किनारे पहुँचा और जल पीने के लिए झुका। तलाब के के कज्जल साफ जल में उसने अपना मुखड़ा देखा। वह उस परछाई पर आसक्त हो गया और उसे देखता ही रहा । वह उस सुन्दर परछाई को देखता रहा और प्यार के शब्द बड़बड़ाता रहा। उसकी आँखे उठी नहीं।
9. अन्तत: उसका शरीर लुप्त हो गया। वह एक फूल के डाल में परिवर्तित हो गया जिसके ऊपर सफेद और सुनहरे रंग का एक फुल खिला था । यह फूल आज भी उस तालाब में दिखाई देता है जिसे नार्सिसस या नरगिस के नाम से जाना जाता है।
Glossary : शब्दावली
Roam(v): विचरण करना, इधर – उधर घूमना,Nymph(n): अप्सरा, परी। Passerby(v): पास से गुजरने या जाने वाला। Detain(v): रोक देना। Stumbling upon=अनायास किसी को ढूंढ लेना। Mystify (v): घबरा देना। Annoyed (adj): चिढ़ाना। Curse(n): शाप देना। Long(v): अभिलाषा ,इच्छा । Gaze(v): टकटकी लगाकर देखना। Embarrassed (adj): लज्जित होना। Wither(v): धीरे – धीरे लुप्त हो जाना। Shrunken (adj): सिकुड़ जाना। Altogether (adj): कुल मिलाकर, पूर्णत:। Pathetic (adj): दर्दनाक , दयनीय । Anxious (adj): चिन्तित, आशंकित। Brutally (adj): निर्दयतापूर्वक, आक्रामक रुप से। Scorned(v): अपमानित करना। Image(n): परछाई। Murmuring (n): बुदबुदाना, भुनभुना।
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
B.1.1. Write ‘T’ for ture and ‘F’ for false statements:
1. Narcissus was very young and handsome. [T]
2. Narcissus went fishing. [F]
3. Echo had detained Goddess Hera. [T]
4. Hera cursed Echo. [T]
5. Echo did not want to speak to Narcissus. [F]
B.1.2. Study the lesson carefully and complete these sentences :
1. The nymph was so embarrassed and ashamed.
2. Her youth and beauty withered away.
3. Narcissus had played with many women.
4. Narcissus was tried and thirsty from his hunting.
5. Narcissus could not fear himself away his own image.
B.1.3. Answer the following questions very briefly :
1. Who was Narcissus ?
Ans. Narcissus was a handsome young prince.
2. Who was Echo ?
Ans. Echo was a nymph. She was a great character and could talk to anybody on any subject at any time.
3. What did Echo do with any passerby ?
Ans. Echo would stop any passerby any time and talk to him on any subject.
4. Who was detained by Echo ?
Ans. Echo Hera the Goddess was detained by Echo for casual talks on several occasions.
5. Whom did Echo follow ?
Ans. Echo followed Narcissus through the trees.
6. What was the reaction of Narcissus when he saw Echo ?
Ans. Narcissus roughly pushed Echo away and run.
7. Why did Echo hide herself in a dark cave ?
Ans. As Echo was roughly treated by Narcissus, she got highly embarrassed and ashamed. She decided to hid herself in a dark cave.
8. Who had cursed Narcissus ?
Ans. Narcissus had played with many hearts. At last one of these prayed to the Gods that Narcissus would find some day scorned by one he loved. The prayed was heard and granted.
9. Who did Narcissus fall in love with ?
Ans. Narcissus fell in love with his own image which he saw in the still water of the pool, where he had gone to satisfy his thirst.
10. At last what happened with Narcissus ?
Ans. The body of Narcissus withered away and it turned into a stem of flower with lovely gold and white blossom.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Who was Narcissus ? What was special about him ?
Ans. Narcissus was handsome young man. The speciality about him was the everybody who saw him, fell in love with him immediately.
2. Who was Echo ? Who cursed him and why ? What was the curse ?
Ans. Echo was a nymph. The speciality about her was that the could talk to anybody on any subject at any time. Once she engaged, the Goddess in some casual talks. Hera was at that time about to make love with Zeus. This interruption from Echo annoyed the Goddess so much that she curced Echo, the nymph that she could utter nothing in future except the last words she has heard.
3. Why did Echo follow Narcissus ?why was the Eger to talk to him?
Ans. Echo wanted to see the beauty of Narcissus and so she followed him through the trees. Echo followed Narcissus because the wanted to have him near.
4. Describe what happened during the meeting of Echo and Narcissus ?
Ans. Echo came out of hiding place to approach Narssius. But Narcissus pushed her away and ran back. He said — I would die before I would have you near me.” Echo replied firmly I would have you near me. ” Echo replied firmly I would have you near me, some how.
5. Why was the nymph embarrassed and a shamed ? What was the result of it.
Ans. Echo had not expected that rude treatment from Narcissus. She was highly embarrassed and ashamed. She hid herself in a cave and never came and never came out into the air and sunlight again. Her beauty and youth withered away, Shrinking her body to the extent that eventually, she Vanished and became just a non entity.
6. Who prayed to Gods against Narcissus ? What did she pray ? was it granted?
Ans. Narcissus had played with many hearts and at last one of the those he had scored prayed to the Gods that Narcissus would some day find himself scorned by one he loved. The prayer was heard and granted ?
7. What happened to Narcissus when he went to the pool, to quench his thirst .
Ans. As he leaned over the shining surface of the pool, he saw the reflection of the most beautiful face he had ever seen. His heart trembled at the sight and he could no take himself away from it. That was the reflection of his own beautiful face. He had not raise his eyes from the surface and only murmured words of love. His body withered away and what remained there was a flower with gold white blossom and that flower is called Narcissus.
8. What feeling you have when you see your reflection in a mirror ?
Ans. The mirror tells the truth. One cannot deceived himself after seeing the reflection in the mirror.
C.2. Group Discussion
1. If you meet two persons, one having a beautiful face and the other a beautiful heart, whom would you prefer and why ?
2. Falling in love with oneself is dangerous. Do you agree ?
[To be arranged by the class teacher ]
Write a paragraph in about 80 words on ‘ Beauty is only skin-deep’.
Ans. All the creatures on this earth are creation of God. God has created men, women, animals, birds, flowers and trees of different size, shape and colour. Persons with white skin and good physique and appearance are appreciated and people get attrached towords him or her.
But we fail to understand that the beauty we see is limited only to the skin which covers the whole structure of the body. As we know, Lord Krishna was of black colour which we call Shyam Verna or colour of a cloud but he was very- very attractive.
Moreover, we must realize that the real beauty is inside the skin i.e. beauty of heart, nature etc which makes one attractive.
D.1. word Study : Correct the spelling of the following words :
1. Incorrect Correct
2. Look up a dictionary and Write two meanings of the following words— the one in which it is used in the lesson and the other which is more common.
1. Handsome, Beautiful , Attractive
2. Pleaded , Requested , To appeal 3. Tiny , small , Little
4. Roamed, Wandering , Walking
5. Convinced , Confirmed, Believed
6. Quiet , Undisturbed, Unmoved
7. Companion, Mate , Friend
8. Pool , Pond,lake , Reservoir
9. Anxious , Eager , Desirous
D.2. Word Formation :
Ex.1. Making words by adding ‘ suffix’ to words may be noun or adjective. As for example if we add ‘ ness’ at the end of a word which is noun it would make another word which will be an adjective.
Ans. Help is a word which is noun. If we add ‘ less’ as suffix to the word ‘ help ‘ is would become helpless which is an adjective. Similarly ‘ Shy ‘ is an adjective and by adding ‘ ness ‘ to the word at the end [suffix] it would become ‘ shyness ‘ which is an abstract noun.
We can make words through this process which is called suffix. Let us make some words like this:
Ticket + less = Ticketless
Money+ less = Moneyless
Top+ less = Topless
Heart + less = Heartless
Colour + less = Colourless
Taste +less = Tastless
Care + less = Careless
Smart +ness = Smartness
Open + ness = Openness
Bitter + ness = Bitterness
Good + ness = Goodness
Rough + ness = Roughness
Foolish + ness = Foolishness
Wise + ness = Wiseness
Ex.2. Now making adverb from adjective by adding suffix ‘ ly ‘.
Skillful , Skilfully , Beautiful , Beautifully
Slow, Slowly, Careless, Carelessness
Wise, Wisely, Strong , Strongly
Brave , Bravely , Heart , Heartly
Smart , Smartly , Foolish , Follishly
Intelligent, Intelligently, Clear, Clearly
Rough , Roughly , Bitter, Bitterly
Final , Finally
D.3. Find the the lesson the words of which the meanings have been given in Column ‘ A ‘ The left part of each word has been given in Column ‘ B ‘ .
Spirit In the from of Nymph
Make somebody confused Mystify
Felt awkward Embarrassed
Refuse something in Scorned
Violently and cruelty Brutally
Wanting something Anxious
D.4. Phrases :
Find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Then use these phrases in sentences or your own :
1. Follow through : Para – 3 : you follow through my steps.
2. Before long : Para -3: Before long it is dark, we must reach home.
3. Play trick on : Para -7 : Do not play trick on your friends.
4. Wither away : Para -14+17: She withered away from scene suddenly.
5. Year one Self away : Para -16 : He could not fear himself away from the place of occurrence.
6. At last : Para – 17+18 : At last we won the game.
A Gerund is a verble noun. It is formed by adding ‘ ing ‘ to the end of first from of verb.
It is also used as subject, of an object of a as complement of a verb.
Example : Swimming is a good exercise.
I like painting.
He stopped me from smoking.[ As prep.]
As a subject : Swimming is a good exercise.
Smoking is injurious to health.
Walking is a good exercise.
In all the three sentences is has been used as subjects.
As object :
I like painting.
She hates smoking.
I know swimming.
Fill in the blanks with suitable gerunds:
1. He was accused of lying.
2. She stopped her mother from speaking.
3. I controlled myself from smoking.
4. He avoids fighting with ruffians.
5. They were accused of stealing.
There are three kind of participle :
1. Present 2. Past 3. Perfect
1. The present participle is used to denote unfinished action. As for example :
I saw a running horse on the road.
2. Past participle is used to denote a finished action e.g. she gave a written statement.
3. Perfect participle is used to denote a finished action before another action takes place.
Example : Having taken his meal, he want to college. Now it is to be understood that a Gerund works as a noun and a verb which a participle works as a. Adjective to qualify Nouns or pronouns.
Example of Present Participle :
Barking dogs seldom bite.
Example: A tired man cannot work well.
Perfect participle : It is formed by using the word ‘ Having ‘ before the past participle form of the verb.
Examp.: Having fallen at the feet of his mother he started weeping.
F. Activities :
[ To be done under the guidance of class teacher ]
Translate the following into English :
1. मैंने उसे पार्क में बैठा हुआ देखा।
I saw him sitting in the park.
2. मैंने उसे पढ़ते हुए देखा।
I found him reading.
3. उसने मुझे सोया हुआ पाया।
He found me sleeping.
4. पुलिस ने चोर को भागते हुए देखा।
The police saw the thieves running away.
5. एक लड़का चलती हुई गाड़ी से कूद गया।
A boy jumped out of a running train.
6. मैंने एक पीते हुए आदमी को वहाँ देखा।
I saw a drunken person over there.
7. इस कमरे में दो टूटी हुई कुर्सीयाँ थी।
There were two broken chairs In this room.
8. उसने घायल आदमी की बहुत सेवा की।
He nursed an injured person nicely.
9. मैंने उसे कमरे में ताला लगाते देखा।
I saw him locking the room.
10. सुबह में टहलना आवश्यक है।
It is necessary to walk in the morning.
11. सिगरेट पीना हानीकारक है।
Smoking cigarette is injurious.
12. मैं गाना जानता हूँ।
I know singing.