10th english

bseb class 10 english book notes – MARTHA


bseb class 10 english book notes

class – 10

subject – english

lesson 8 – MARTHA

— Walter Dala Mare
Summary In English:  Walter Dala Mare is a modern English poet. There are other modern poet too who are quite famous like one T.S. Eliot. But there is a difference between the two. T. S. Eliot discuss modern problems of society which Dela mare creates an atmosphere of my stroy through his poems.
Some of the best poems of Dela Mare are ‘ The Listener’ , The  ‘ Scarecrow ‘ and ‘ Arabia ‘.
Walter D. Mare was born in the 1873 and died in 1956.
Long , long ago Marta would narrate us her stories in the  natural environment of the Valey in the mountain. The valley gave reflection of browen with greenistings  (flavour ). Her eyes were of clear grey colour. It gave the felling of seeing something in dreams. While telling stories she used to sit with knees bent and her two Slim hands holding her knees round. We used to sit before her with our elbows rolled and used to stare at her knees round. We used to sit before her with our elbows rolled and used to stare at her face.
Her appearance and her grave small lovely head gave natural expression of words in her mouth.
In the second part of the poem the poet contact with the actual tale of the fairy. The poet says that like a dream in the night he saw Fairies and summer sun were gone and accordingly her beauty foaded away with her voice running.
The whole scence of the dream disappeared like clouds in the sky but our hearts stood still.
It was a faling of sudden quietness around and a sense that this has happened long long ago.

कविता का सारांश
बहुत दिनों की बात है कि मराठा ,पहाड़ के मनोरम वादियों के प्राकृतिक वातावरण में हमें अपनी कहानी कहती थी। वादियों के बीच से एक भूरा पर हरीतिमा लिये एक प्राकृतिक रंग चतुर्दिक उभरता था। मारठा की आँखें निर्मल थी और उसका रंग भूरा था ।जब हम ध्यानमग्न होकर उसके कथा सुनते थे तो उसकी सुंदरता में खो जाते थे। ऐसा लगता था कि हम कोई अपना सपना देख रहे हैं ।कहानी कहते समय वह अपने दोनों पैरों को मोड़कर बैठती थी और उसके दोनों हाथ उसके ठेहुने  को घेरे रहते थे। हम उसके सामने अपने दोनों केहुनियों को मोड़ कर उस पर अपने सर को टिकाये  उसकी और टकटक निहारते रहते थे। उसकी मुखाकृति से उसके शब्द टपकते थे। बिना कुछ कहे उसका गंभीर चेहरा बहुत सारी बातें का जाता था ।
इस कविता के दूसरे भाग में कवि परियों की एक कहानी कहता है। कवि कहता है कि रात को देखें एक स्वप्न की तरह उसने कुछ परियों को वादी की हरी लताओं के बीच अपना मुखड़ा छुपाये देखा ।उसका चेहरा तबतक दिखाई देता रहा जब तक सूरज की रोशनी भुरी- हरीतिमा लिए वादियों से  लुक्त नहीं हो गई। इसके साथ ही उस परी का सौंदर्य धीरे-धीरे लुप्त हो गया और ऐसा लगा कि उसकी आवाज भी नहीं वादियो में खो गयी।
कवि को ऐसा लगा कि जो कुछ भी उसने देखा हुआ एक सपना था और वह सपना आकाश में उड़ते बादलों की तरह दूर कहीं दूर आसमान में चला गया और ऐसा लगा जैसे वह युग की गहराइयों में खो गया। उसके बाद निस्तब्धता ने दिशाओं  को घेर लिया।


Glen (noun): संकरी घाटी का दर्रा। Tranquil (Adj.) : शांत , निस्तब्ध । Slim (Adj.) :  दुबला , पतला।  Clasped (verb): पकड़ना। Stared (verb): एकटक से देखना । Grave (Adj): गम्भीर। Fairies (noun): अप्सरा। Hash (noun): शांत स्थली ।

A. Pre reading questions :
Answer the questions briefly :
Q.1. Do you have dreams ?
Ans. Yes, I do have.
Q.2. When you wake up from sleep, do you find your dreams as real as events of life ?
Ans. Sometimes the dreams do reflect the events and happenings of real life but sometimes those are fictitious too.
Q.3. Have you read any fairy tale ?
Ans. Yes, I have read few fairy tales also.
Q.4. Do you find its events real as in life ?
Ans. Most of the fairy tales are based on imagination and are away from real life.
Q.5. Does it have any logical sequence of events ?
Ans. Mostly it does not deside logical sequence of real life.
B. While reading Questions :
B.1. Write [ T ] for true and [F] for false for the following sentences :
1. Martha tells her stories over and over again. [T]
2. If one watches her eyes it seems story is told by her beautiful eyes. [T]
3. Her stories were turbulent. [F]
4. She would sit with clasped hands round her neck .,[F]
5. Martha would tell her stories in greenish brown valley.[T]
B.2. Answer the questions briefly :
Q.1. What does Martha do in the Hazel glen ?
Ans. Martha would tell us her stories in the Hazel glen.
Q.2. What is the colour of Martha eyes?
Ans. The eyes are clear grey in colour.
Q.3. Who are stering at ease ?
Ans. The poet says ” We on our elbows started at ease.”
Q.4. How do they sit to listen Martha’s story ?
Ans. They would sit with their elbows rolled .
Q.5. How half at the stories were told?
Ans. Half of the story has been told by describing the features of the personality of Martha. The description of fairies matched with that of Martha, the story teller herself. So it gave an impression that a fairy was herself narrating the story.
B.3. Fill in the blanks on the basis of your reading of the poem :
Like a dream you dream in the night.
Fairies and gomes stole out.
In the leaf green light.
And her beauty far a way.
Would fade as her voice ran on.
C. Questions with long answers :
Q.1. Describe Martha’s physical features.
Ans. Martha’s eyes were gray and clear. She was beautiful and had an effect of tranquility on her face. She would sit with her two Slim hands clasped round her bended knees.
Q.2. Do you find this poem like a dream ?
Ans. Dream is a sequence story mostly based on imagination. In this poem too there is a description of fairies and gnomes which are not world by objects.
Hence it can be said to be a poem based on dreams.
Q.3. How this poem ends ?
Ans. The poem ends with a note of quietness and giving a felling of traveling in the past age and time.
Q.4. Do you think that Martha and children are enjoying stories ?
Ans. Yes, they are. It is very much apparent from the posture of both the story teller and  the listener.
Martha sits with her two Slim hands clasped round her bended knees while the children with their rolled elbows are staring with ease towards the story teller. It reflects that they are enjoying the stories..
Q.5. Martha beings with happy and trenquil note and ends with sadness. Discuss it with reference to the poem.
Ans. Perhaps because the story stars in the present and ends in the past. The past gives a sense of sadness. The whole scene fades out as hazel and summer sun. all were gone.
Q.6. Explain the mood of the poet when he says” Our hearts stood still in the hush of an age gone by.”
Ans. The mood is pensive and throughful. The poet feels some vacuum in heart as this memories have to a stand still position drawing a picture of age gone by.
Q .7. Describe poet’s feeling when he started the poem.
Ans. The poet bears a romantic felling while describing the features of Martha. The poem takes a start with an optimistic note and feeling of happiness .
D. Poetic  Structure :
Are the words appearing at the end of each line rhyme alike ?
You watch and the story seems.
Told by their beautifulness.
Tranquil as dreams.
Find out other words, which rhyme alike.
1. again and glen.
2. seen and dreams.
3. Knees and ease.
4. head and said .
5. night and light.
6. on the gone.
7. sky and by.
Ex. Use following words in sentences.
1. Slim = He looks quite slim.
2. Tranquil = Tranquility prevailed on the bank of the river.
3. Stare = He was staring with his big eyes.
4. Grave = Mohan bears a grave personality.
5. Clasp = He had clasped his hands round his knees.
Ex. Rearrange the jumble words taken from the lesson.
Misl = slim           Rou = our
Nduro = Round    Rdwo = word
Denb = Bend
F.1 Grammar :
Auxiliary verbs are grouped in two categories : Primary auxiliary verbs and modal auxiliary verbs.
Examp : Martha would tell us — here were would suggest insistence.
Now choose modal verbs used in the poem and the meaning they convey.
Ans. She would sit with her two = suggest intention .
Would fade as her voice = suggests possibility.
F.2. figure of speech :
Similar and Metaphor :
F.2.1 Similie : Comparison between two dissimilar objects is called simile. It is usually compared by words ‘like ‘ and ‘ as :.
Find out used by the poet in this poem :
Tranquil as dreams.
Like a dream .
As her voice ran on.
And like clouds.
F.2 .2. Metaphor : It is way of comparing things by attributing qualities to the subject.
Examp: He is Shakespeare of his school.
Do you find any metaphor in the poem ? Pick out if any.
G. Activities :
1. Prepare a short speech on land sliding on hills.
Ans. Respected chairman , regarded guests , my class teacher and my friends.
I am speaking to you today on the a very sensitive subject of land slides on the hills. This is passing a great problem for the debris may carry them away two hundred fact down the hills. So that people live in a mental state of panic every time.
So I appeal to the local administration to do something urgently to do something so that people are saved from this castatrophe. These land slides are posing a big problem on the hills.

Translation :
1. मेरी दादी कहानियाँ सुनाएँगी।
My grandmother will tell some short stories.
2.उनकी आँखों का रंग हल्का भूरा है।
The colour of his eyes is light brown.
3. कहानियाँ हमारे दिल और दिमाग को सुकून
देती हैं।
Stories provided peace and tranquility to our heart and mind or stories have soothing effect on our heart and mind.
4. पहाड़ियों पर बादल थे।
There were clouds on the hills.
5. उसकी आवाज बहुत प्यारी है।
He has a melodious voice or she has a sweet voice.
6. मैंने एक सपना देखा।
I had a dream.
7. धीरे – धीरे उसकी आवाज कम हो गयी ।
He lost his voice slowly.
8. हमारा दिल बैठ गया।
My heart drowned.
9. हम एकटक देख रहे थे।
We kept gazing.
10. उसकी आंखें आधी बात कह देती हैं।
His eyes reveal half the truth.

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