10th english

10 class english book – THE EMPTY HEART

THE  EMPTY  HEART

10 class english book

class – 10

subject – english

lesson 5 – THE  EMPTY  HEART

THE  EMPTY  HEART
—Periasamy Thooran
Summary In English : Periasamy Thoran was a renowned Tamil writer. He was born in the year 1908 and lived upto the age of eighty one. He died in the year 1987. General Encyclopedia in in Tamil in ten volumes. The encyclopedia was edited by Periasamy. After the Publication of general Encyclopedia he compiled and edited another encyclopedia in Tamil for children.
In writing poem Thoran preferred prose – poem and sonnet [ poem of fourteen lines ]. His works include [ Illtatamized’ and ‘ Kavitaika’ which are collection of poems, which is a short story book and collection of essays entitled pubin Sirippu. He was honoured with the prestigious award of Padma Bhushan by the government of sudia and ‘ Kalalmamani ‘ from Tamilnadu Govt.
In this poem the poet has painted the picture of a man who was rich but was not satisfied with what he had. Throughout the day, noon and night he would be thinking of only money and money . He would goto the ‘ Wish- Yielding Tree ‘ and pray  to grant him a pot  of gold.
One day the God granted him his wish and bestowed with seven pitchers of gold coin. All the seven pitchers were filled upto the neek . The wish God had the last laugh on him and he gave him the eighth pitcher too but this pitcher was only half filled.
The rich man after getting the eighth pitcher became sad. He forgot about the other seven full vessels. The demon of desire entered into his made him mad.
This desire over took his good reasonsing and he totally neglected his mother, wife and children. He started working till mind after getting up before sunrise and avoided taking meal, breakfast and everything. He because shameless to catch a coin through any method. Ultimately he died one day but he could not at a fulfil his desire. He could not manage to fill the pot.
At the end the poet says that greed of a man is endless but the life is not. The end to life is found to come. It is not all wrong if we have limited money with us.
It is only the void in our heart which is killing . Man is never satisfied and that is the curse in life.

                  कविता का सारांश
प्रेरियासामी योरन एक विख्यात तमिल लेखक थे।  उनका जन्म सन् 1908 में हुआ था और वे 81 वर्ष तक जीवित रहे । वर्ष 1987 में उनकी मृत्यु हो गयी।  एक कहानीकार के रूप में उनको ख्याति मिली और फिर एक कवि के रूप में भी उनको प्रसिद्धि मिली । पर तमिल भाषा मैं उनके द्वारा संकलित और संपादित विश्वकोश के प्रकाशन के बाद उनकी ख्याति में चार चांद लग गये।  बाद में उन्होंने बाल — विश्वकोश का भी संपादन किया ।
उन्होंने अपनी कविता की शैली गद्यकाव्य की रखी। सोलह  पंक्ति की छंद रचना को भी उन्होंने अपनी कविता लेखन का माध्यम बताया ।उनकी प्रसिद्ध काव्य कृतियां है — इलन्तामिजा ‘ , ‘कविताइका ‘  । ‘ तंगकागलि’ शीर्षक ने से उनकी कहानियों का संग्रह प्रकाशित हुआ और निबंध- संग्रह का प्रकाशन ‘ पुविन स्क्रिप्स’  नाम से हुआ ।
भारत सरकार की ओर से उन्हें ‘पदम भूषण’ की उपाधि देकर अलंकृत किया गया और ‘कलालमणि ‘का सम्मान उन्हें तमिलनाडु सरकार द्वारा प्रदान किया गया ।
प्रस्तुत कविता जिसका अंग्रेजी शीर्षक है — मानव की कमजोरियों पर प्रकाश डालता है।  तमिल में इस कविता का शीर्षक ‘ कुराईकदम ‘। धन के प्रति मनुष्य जरूरत से ज्यादा आकर्षित रहता है। धन -संग्रह की आकांक्षा मनुष्य की एक बहुत बड़ी कमजोरी है । जैसे-जैसे जीवन में धन का आगमन होता है मनुष्य की लालसा ,लिप्सा ,धन -प्राप्ति के लिए और तेज होती जाती है और यही उनकी मृत्यु का कारण बन जाती है ।
खाली आत्मा है या या कविता एक ऐसे मनुष्य का चित्र प्रस्तुत करता है जिसके पास धन की कमी नहीं है लेकिन संतुष्टि नहीं है ।दिन ,दोपहर ,रात वह केवल धन प्राप्ति के बारे में ही सोचता रहता है — उसे लगता है उसे धन मिले। वह कल्पतरु के पास जाकर प्रार्थना करता उसे कम से कम एक घर सोना मिल जाए कल्पतरु एक ऐसा तरु यानी माना जाता है जो लोगों के मन की इच्छा की पूर्ति करता है।  एक दिन ‘कल्पतरु ‘उसकी प्रार्थना सुन ली और उसे की जगह सात घड़े सोने के सिक्का का वरदान दिया । सभी सातों घड़े बिल्कुल सोने के सिक्के से भरे हुए थे। मनोकामना पूर्ति करने वाले स्वर्ण उस व्यक्ति की परीक्षा लेनी चाहिए और उसे एक और अतिरिक्त घड़ा भी दिया जिसमें सोने के सिक्के तो थे लेकिन यह आठवां घड़ आधा खाली था।
यह आठवाँ घड़ा पाकर  वह धनी व्यक्ति परेशान होने की जगह उदास हो गया ।उसके मन में पुन : एक कामना ने जन्म लिया —यह अठवाँ  घड़ा  ईश्वर ने आधा खाली क्यों दिया? वह साथ पूर्ण घरे के बारे में भूल गया और आठ में घरे की पूर्णता का ख्याल उसके हृदय में खरीदने लगा ।उसकी या इच्छा इतनी बलवती हुई कि वह अपना मानसिक संतुलन खो बैठा । दिन रात एक ही चिंता उसके मन में मस्तिष्क में हिलोरें मारती रहीं — वह अपनी माँ,  पत्नी और बच्चों को भी भूल गया ।वह रात- दिन भी जी तोड़  मेहनत करने लगा ।वह सूर्योदय के पूर्व मुर्गे की आवाज भी नहीं सुनाई पड़ती उठ जाता और मध्य रात तक काम करता रहता। वह खाना-पीना ,नाश्ता सब भूल गया ।रात को उसे ठीक से नींद भी नहीं आती थी । सही दिशा में सोचने का कार्यक्रम उसने बिलकुल छोड़ दिया था यानी सद्बुद्धि क्या उसे त्याग कर दिया था ।धन कमाने के लिए उसने चतुराई और दौड़ता का सहारा लेना शुरू किया ।  पैसा कमाने हेतु वह किसी प्रकार का हथकंडा अपना सकता था ।
पर उसकी चतुराई भी किसी काम की नहीं आई और अपने अनवरत प्रयत्न के बाद भी वह उस घरे को ऊपर तक पढ़ नहीं पाया और दुर्भाग्यवश वह मर गया।
अंत कवि अन्त  में कहता है कि मनुष्य की इच्छाएँ अनंत है उसके अंदर का लोभ मरता नहीं पर मृत्यु का अंत निश्चित है ।मनुष्य के पास अगर सीमित धन भी हो तो जीवन यापन में कोई बाधा नहीं आती। हममें अपराध बोध का भाव नहीं आना चाहिए अगर हमारे बटुए में कम पैसे हैं । असंतोष हमारे हृदय में एक खालीपन की अग्नि प्रज्वलित कर देता है जो अग्नि जल्दी बुझती नहीं और वही मनुष्य के लिए ‘ मारक’  बन जाती है।

     GLOSSARY  AND NOTES
Yielding (noun): माननेवाला। Glisten (verb): जगमगाना । Pitcher (noun): मटका , घड़ा। Demon (noun): राक्षस, दुरात्मक । Shirk (verb): कतराना। Wreck (noun): जहाज जो टूट गया या डूब गया।
Encyclopedia (noun): विश्व शब्दकोश । Brim (noun): ऊपरी किनारे तक ।

EXERCISE
A. Answer the following questions orally :
Q.1. What is your opinion about s greedy man ?
Ans. A greedy man is looked down in the society. He ends his life in disaster.
Q.2. What does he do to satisfy his ambition ?
Ans. He utilizes wrong methods to earn money and can go upto any extent.
Q.3. What ultimate result he has to some across ?
Ans. He ends in doom with ultimate premature death.
B.1. Write ‘ T ‘ for true and ‘ F’ for false statement.
1. Periasamy Thooran  has written to poem ‘The Empty Heart’ [ F ].
2. Periasamy Thooran was a Bengali writer [ F ].
3. The Empty Heart ‘ poem was translated by S. Swaminarhan. [ T ].
4. The man was given six pots [ F ].
B. 1.2. Answer the following questions very briefly :
Q.1. Why was the man not content , although he was rich.
Ans. He had a demo desire in his heart to have more and more wealth.
Q.2. When was the gift given by the tree ?
Ans. He used to go to ‘ wish Yielding ‘ tree and prayed for a pot of gold. The Gift  God granted him seven pitchers of glistening gold which were filled upto the brim.
Q.3. Why was the tree called unkind ?
Ans. Because the eights pitcher which the God granted as gift was only half filled. He would have been called extremely generous if the eight pitcher would have been full with the gold coins as the other seven pitchers.
Q.4. When did the man want one pot of gold ?
Ans. When he went to the ‘ Kalptaru’ to come to his and give him one pot of gold.
Q.5. Why was her given seven pots ?
Ans. To satisfy the inner greed of the rich man.
B. 1.3. Fill in the blanks with suitable words reading the poem carefully.
Line :
1. The man was rich but not contest.
2. Morning , noon and night he went.
3. His prayer was granted seven fold.
4. For as a gift to him was given.
5. To fill this quick was his thought the seven full vessels he clean forgot.
6. Nothing is wrong with a half filled purse. His the void in the heart that is the curse.
C.1. Long Answer Questions :
Answer the following questions.
Q.1. Explain the tille ” The Empty Heart” in context with the poem ?
Ans. The empty heart denotes a situation where the heart is found to be always in empty condition. It is never filled and hence there is no satisfaction in life. It is just like the half empty pitcher in the poem which could not be filled inspite of the lost efforts from the rich man. The title is quite symbolic and represents the sentiment of the poem.
C.2. Is the name ” Kalpana” justified ? Explain.
Ans. ‘ kalpaka ‘ is a wish Yielding tree which is usually called ‘ Kalptaru’ to Hindi. This seems to be a Tamilian word which is synonymous to ‘ Kalptaru’ or wish Yielding tree. The richman goes to to the wish Yielding tree and addresses the tree as Kalpaka . Hence seems the name is justified.
C.3. Contentment is the style of life. Discuss .
Ans. Contentment is the  way of life. A person is content with he has and leads a happy life whereas another person is always unhappy and is never satisfied even if he has wealth in abundance. The heart and the mind are the key factors to decide Contentment.
C.4. What does the term silver pitcher symbolize ?
Ans. The  pitcher symbolize the heart which is found to empty at all times and silver denotes the wealth. Man is always after money (silver ) and his picture remains unfilled.
C.2. Group Discussion :
Discuss the following in groups or pairs.
1. The greed for the accumulation of material wealth leads to distribution.
Points for discussion :
(a) Greediness is a vice. It is a sin and all the religion despire Greediness.
(b) It is said that Greed gives birth to sun. A person who commits sin is not liked by the people in the society and when you commit sin your life becomes curse.
(c) After all what is the purpose of wealth ? The purpose is to give you happiness in life.
(d)  Actually material wealth cause destruction in the end.
C.3. Composition :
Write a paragraph in about 100 words on each of the following :
(a) A rich man empty heart .
It is said that a rich man has an empty heart. His heart is never filled because the more wealth the gets , he has more appetite is never filled because the more wealth he gets he has more appetite for wealth. Everything he finds money his fire of desire in the heart starts burning again and he goes on finding ways and means to earn more money. It may be good or may be bad. The automate end is to earn and fulfil his uncontrolled desire.
(b) Empty dream :
Dreaming is said to be good for marketing progress in life if one can give shape to his dreams. Dreams encourages to plan your things according to what you imagine. But if the dreams are  only dreams, it has no meaning and purpose and those are called empty dreams.
The empty dreams are just a waste are just a waste and a picture in vain. It has no meaning and therefore has no justification or purpose. Empty dreams are just like empty coffers.
D.1.  Word Study :
Correct the spelling of the following words :
Incorrect        Correct
Attect               Attack
Bigin                  Begin
Chenge             Change
Greatful            Greatful
Apeal                 Appeal
Statement        Statement
Copere              Compare
Sufer                  Suffer
D.2. Use the following words in sentences :
Care : He does not care for his parents.
Bridge : A long road bridge connect Patna with north Bihar.
Demand : He has detected ten rupees for this book.
Hope : He hopes for the best in his examination.
Fight : One should fight the fear .
Promise : You have promised to give me some money.
Profit : The company is running in profit.
Return : He has returned from Delhi only yesterday.
Smell : Foul smell is emitting out from this drain.

E. Grammar :
Pick out the indefinitive, the gernund  and the participles in the following sentences :
1. I decided to go there .
2. Walking is a good exercise.
Gerund = Walking.
Decided = Past participle.
A = Indefinitive article.
Look at the following sentences and find out how the words rhyme.
1. The man rich but not content.
Morning noon and night he went.
Content and went are the rhyming words.
2. All I want is a pot of gold.
His prayer was granted seven fold .
Gold and fold are the  rhyming words.
3. The Demon desire now made him mad.
To mother wife, children good bye he fed.

Compose small poem with rhyming words of your own :
On :  Mother , Mother how thy care.
In the worst of time even you dare .
To show thou.
For you hold it with best and gentle cover.
F.  Activity :
Miet a man in your village and write five sentences about him.
Ans.  When I last visited my village in October during Puja holidays . I met with an old man of the village. He was more than Eighty year old but the could see, eat and walk well. One should try to follow his way of life.
G. Translation :
Translate into English :
1.  मेरी माँ दयालु है।
   My mother is kind hearted.
2. वे सुबह में टहलते हैं।
He walks in the morning.
3. तुम्हें आराम करना चाहिये।
You should take rest .
4. वह कलम से लिख सकती है।
She can write with pen.
5. पटना बिहार की राजधानी है।
Patna is the Capital of Bihar.
6. पटना गंगा के किनारे बसा हुआ है।
Patna is situated on the bank of Ganga.
7. गंगा एक पवित्र नदी है।
Ganga is a sacred  river.
8.  गंगा को प्रदूषित नहीं करना चाहिये।
We should not pollute Ganga.
9. पटना एक पुराना शहर है।
Patna is an old city.
10.  उसने पटना के बारे में पत्र  लिखा है।
He has given description of Patna in his letter or, He has written a letter about Patna.

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