9th english

bseb class 9th english note |100 MANY PEOPLE TOO FEW

100 MANY PEOPLE TOO FEW TREES

bseb class 9th english note

CLASS – 9

SUBJECT – ENGLISH

LESSON 4 – 100 MANY PEOPLE, TOO FEW TREES

100 MANY PEOPLE, TOO FEW THREE
       — Moti Nisani
      

SUMMARY IN ENGLISH

Too many people, too few tree is lesson written by Moti Nisani, who is a teacher at a state University is USA. The writer in this lesson has tried to draw the attention of the people of the world towards Ower growing population and the effect of deforestation on our environment. The whole subject has been dealt with lucidly in ten paragraph of the lesson.
The writer says that every day some people die while the born. This process of birth and death is counting on this earth since life acde. But the rate of death is slower than the birth. This has resulted in the growth of population rapidly. As per an estimate about 80 million people are big added every year. That means. There are more people on this earth to he fed and to be looked after compared to what they were about 100 or 200 years back. This is resulting in limiting the available natural resources or man made resources. The demand would increase and the supply would go on decreasing.
This creates a man made pressure on our whole ecology. More space would be required to live in, more food to satisfy our hunger, more water rather unpolluted water to drink and so on.
What happens then ? The forests would vanish with the cutting of trees. The rivers get polluted, erosion of soil will cause floods, flora and fauna will diminish to the extent of extinction and there will be no fresh air for the people to survive.
Is this not going to create alarming situation ? Moreover, the earth surface will turn into deserts, causing depletion of other natural resources like natural resources like natural gas, petrol etc. Ozone layer which saves human will go on thining and green house effect on earth will disappear.
Due to human made pollution about 60,000 American die each year though respiratory diseases. Fourteen Americans die each day due to Asthma. The situation in Kathmandu, Mexico, Shanghai and Los – Angeles is even worse.
The only solution to this is to control population growth. This can be done through firm determination. The countries like China, Thailand and Egypt have rose up to the alarming situation and have been able to slow down the population growth. This has been possible by making  the people a were through media compaign and through family planning methods made  available by the government for common man at all levels.
The other area which requires immediate attention is to stop cutting of tree and start afforestation. The forests are getting cut for making of houses, furniture, factories and for other commercial purposes like manufacturer of papers for printing . For how long we can afford this ? Earlier in this country, forests covered around 40% of the earth’s total land area. By the end of this century the figure would come down to 25%, a loss of 15% which is going to  affect the life of man on earth.
There will be landslides, soil erosion, loss of species of plants and animals and the rivers will get silted. The whole ecological balance unworthy of living one day.
We have to be alert, cautious and should take immediate action to reverse the process of deforestation by stopping cutting of trees and by starting planting more trees.

            SUMMARY IN HINDI
टू मेनी पिपुल, टू फ्यू  ट्रीज शीर्षक यह लेख श्री मोती निशान द्वारा लिखित है। श्री निशान अमेरिका के एक स्टेट विश्वविद्यालय में प्राध्यापक हैं। लेखक ने इस आलेख ने इस आलेख में विश्व की बढ़ती आबादी और धरती तल से कटते वृक्ष की ओर हमारा ध्यान आकृष्ट किया है जिससे हमारा पर्यावरण प्रभावित हो रहा है।
लेखक कहता है कि प्रतिदिन धरती पर कुछ लोग जन्म लेते है और कुछ लोग मृत्यु को प्राप्त होते हैं। जीवन और मृत्यु का यह क्रम पृथ्वी पर आदिकाल से अनवरत चल रहा है।जन्म और मृत्यु जीवन की गति है परन्तु जन्म कि गति मृत्यु से ज्यादा है। फलत: धीरे- धीरे पृथ्वी पर वास करने वाले  जन समुदाय में वृद्धि होती रही है। मानव इस असंतुलन का आकलन नहीं कर पाता।
एक अनुमान के अनुसार प्राय:  80,000 हजार व्यक्ति प्रति वर्ष ज्यादा लोगों के लिए भोजन की व्यवस्था करनी  पड़ती है। सौ साल या दो सौ साल पहले की जनसंख्या और आज की जनसंख्या में भारी परिवर्तन आया है। इसका प्रतिफल यह हो रहा है कि हमारे पास प्राकृति द्वारा दिये तथा मानव निर्मित साधनों में क्रमशः कमी होती जा रही है। माँग बढ़ रही है और उस अनुपात में साधन सीमित हो रहे हैं। इसका प्रत्यक्ष प्रभाव सम्मपूर्णं पर्यावरण पर परिलक्षित हो रहा है ‌। रहने के स्थान का अभाव हो रहा है। बड़ी हुई आबादी की भूख मिटाने के लिए अन्य की कमी हमारे जीवन को प्रभावित कर रहें हैं। जीवन जीने की एक होड़ लगी है जिसके कारण हम स्वयं का नुक़सान कर रहे हैं- कैसे ? इसपर हम विचार करें।
वृक्षों के काटने के कारण धरती वीरान हो रही है। नदियों के जल सुख रहे हैं। पृथ्वी की ऊपरी सतह के कटाव के कारण भूस्खलन और बाढ़ का प्रकोप बढ़ता जा रहा है। पेड़ – पौधों एवं पशु – पक्षियों की हजारों प्रजातियाँ नष्ट होकर लुप्त हो गई है। ये सब हमारे प्रर्यावरण के अंग हैं। एक ओर खतरा हमें घेर रहा है — प्राकृतिक  साधनों  की कमी । पेट्रोल, प्राकृतिक गैस तथा अन्य प्राकृतिक धातुओं का क्रमशः अभाव होता जायेगा जिसकी बदौलत हम ऐश्र्वर्यवान बनें हैं। पृथ्वी की हरीतिमा का प्रभाव समाप्त हो जायेगा।
आपको यह जानकर आश्चर्य होगा कि मानव निर्मित प्रदूषण के कारण अमेरिका जैसे विकसित देश में प्रति वर्ष 60,000 व्यक्ति श्वास के लोग से ग्रसित होकर काल कवलित हो रहे हैं। इसी प्रकार दमा के कारण चौदह व्यक्ति प्रतिदिन मर रहे हैं। संघाई, काठमांडू तथा लाँस ऐंजेलेस जैसे नगरों में स्थिती और दयनीय है।
इन सभी व्याधियों का मात्र एक ही इलाज है जनसंख्या को सीमित किया जाना ताकि विकास के  फल का लाभ देश की कम आबादी को आसानी से सुलभ हो जाय । दृढ़ निश्चय और जागरूकता द्वारा यह संभव है।
चाइना यानी चीन, थायलैंड और इजिप्ट आदि देशों ने मिलकर योजनाबद्ध तरीके से बढ़ती हुयी आबादी की गति को कम कर लिया है। परिवार नियोजन के तरीके को अपनाने हेतु बहुमाध्यमों के प्रचार लोगों में जागृति पैदा की गई है।
एक दुसरा क्षेत्र, जिस पर हमारी दृष्टि जानी चाहिए वह है – वृक्षों की अन्धाधुन्ध कटाई को रोका जाना तथा नये वृक्षों का लगाया जाना। हमारे देश में पहले धरती के कुल भूभाग के 40 प्रतिशत क्षेत्र में पौधे और जंगल थे जो अब घट 25 प्रतिशत रह गये है। इस 15 प्रतिशत जंगलों की कमी का प्रतिकूल प्रभाव हमारे जीवन पर पड़ेगा ।
नदियों में  अत्यधिक  मिट्टी के जनाव  के कारण जल प्रवाह बाधित होगा, भूस्खलन और बाढ़ जैसी प्राकृतिक आपदा से समान्य जनजीवन अस्त-व्यस्त होगा और सम्पूर्ण का प्रर्यावरणीय संतुलन बिगड़ जायेगा।
समय रहते हमें सचेत हो जाने की आवश्यकता है ताकि मानव अपने और अन्य जीव-जंतुओं के लिए स्वयं खतरा का कारण नहीं बनें।
वृक्ष का काटा जाना रोकें और नयें वृक्ष द्वारा पृथ्वी को पुनः हरा – भरा कर दे ताकि खुशहाली के हम साक्षी बनें।

               Glossary : शब्दावली
Flux (n): प्रवाह, निरन्तर परिवर्तन, Existence (n): अस्तित्व, Sanitation (n): स्वास्थय सफाई संबंधी, Species(n): विशिष्ट जाति, मानव समुदाय, Sobering (adj) : विचारणीय, Vanish(v): लुप्त होना, Tantamount (adj): समानार्थक, आवश्यक , Exacerbate (v): तेजी लाना, Ethics: जातीय, Erode (v): नष्ट करना, क्षय होना, Desertification (n): रेगिस्तान बन जाना या रेगिस्तानी भूमि में परिवर्तित हो जाना, Defy (v): अवज्ञा करना, Compaign (n): संगठित आन्दोलन या प्रचार, Arable (adj): खेती योग्य, Tropical (adj): उष्ण कटिबंधीय, Pastures (n): चारागाह, Landslides (n): भूस्खलन, Devastating (v): प्रलयंकारी, विनाशकारी, Hamper(v): नुकसान पहुँचाना, बाधा डालना।

SORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
B.1.1. Write ‘T’ for ture and ‘F ‘ for false statements:
1. Throughout most of human existence, the number of birth was slightly higher than the number of death. [T] 2. More people will need even less food than they need now. [F] 3. With more people both town and country become more crowded. [T] 4. Higher population density  is also not likely to Exacerbate crime, ethmic conflict and warfare.[F] 5. Population size and Rates of growth are key elements in environmental change.[T] B.1.2.  Answer the following questions very briefly:
Q.1. For how long has the global human population has been rapidly going up?
Ans. During the last three countries or so, the global human population has been rapidly going up.
Q.2. What happens when the population goes up ?
Ans. As the population goes up, so does pollution of rivers, lakes,air, drinking water and soil. With more people both town and country become more crowded. The quality of life gets eroded.
Q.3. How many Americans die each day of Asthma ?
Ans. Fourteen American die each day of Asthma aggravated by air pollution three times the incidence of just twenty years ago.

B.2.1. Complete the following sentences on the basis of the lesson.
1. The more we have, the better off we are.
2. History and common sense tell us that we can control population growth.
3. As the population grows, more and more people are forced to convert forests in farm lands.
4. Forest covered about 40% of the earth’s total land area.
5. Humanity can continue to fall trees cross it’s fingers, and hope for the best.
B. 2.2.
  Q. 1. Name the countries in which the population growth has been slowed down remarkably.
Ans. In the countries like China, Thailand and Egypt the rate of population growth has slowed down remarkably.
Q. 2. The productivity and general health of the world’s forest is threatened. How ?
Ans. The productivity and  general health of the world’s forests is threatened by such things as the green house effect, Ozone layer deplition, air pollution and acid rain.
Q.3. What hampers the ability of the bio – sphere to sustain life ?
Ans. The destination of forest contributes to be loss of green house effect of the nature, loss of thousands of species of plants and animals, land slides, soil erosion, Siltation of rivers and dams, droughts and calamities due to change in weather.
Q.4. How does deforestation in Nepal affect India ?
Ans. When the trees in Nepal are cut, the top soil of earth is lost and due to heavy rain in the catchment area the down area of India gets flooded causing devastating.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Why have human population always in flux ?
Ans. Human population have always been in flux for the simple reason that every day some people die while others are born. Throughout the existence of man on earth, number of births have been slightly higher than the number of deaths. This resulted into the growth of population but the rate was slow. The situation started changing a few hundred years ago because of better health care, Better nutrition and situation.
   Q.2. What does the writer mean by reproductive age ? How do people reach this age ?
Ans.The reproductive age means, the age of a human being when he is able to give birth to a child. After attaining a certain age this power automatically ceases. Due to better nutrition, health, sanitation etc. People are able to like longer and they attain the reproductive age earlier in their total span of life.
    Q. 3. What is human made pollution ? How has it affected America? How will it affect your locality ?
Ans. As the population of the world goes up, the burden on land, water, lakes and other natural resources increases. The town and country become more crowded and this starts polluting air which provides life saving oxygen because there is more gas, smoke, etc. In the atmosphere. More use of chemical fertilizers to grow more food to feed increasing number of people is polluting the soil and and the industries are polluting the natural source of drinking water. These are all man made.
It is estimated that some 60,000 people in American die each year from respiratory diseases caused by human made pollution. Air pollution takes life of fourteen Americans each day due to Asthma. This is one of the disease of respiratory system of human body.
We in India are not better in this respect. Towns situated on the human wastes directly into the river. The carbon discharge from the vehicle on road is high source of air pollution with less trees to absorb the poisonous carbon.

Q.4. Population size and rates of growth are key elements in environmental change. Explain two examples from your own socity.
Ans. Population size and rates of growth are key elements in environmental change. At any level of development increased populations increase energy use resource consumption and environmental stress. So. The more people the world has, the more server these problems are likely to become.
We can take example of two big cities of our country — Bombay and Calcutta. The enormous increase of population in these two cities are eating away the available resources. The pressure on land has increased and day by day per capita supply of water both for drinking and other purpose is becoming short in supply making the life of inhabitants difficult.

Q.5. How do countries like Germany, Switzerland, China , Thailand and Egypt mange to reverse or slow down population growth ? What does reverse mean here ? How has it been possible ?
Ans. Many factors account for these remarks able declines. These are modernization of socity, literacy media campaigns etc which have brought awareness and change in social thinking. Family planning methods as well as use of Contraceptives are very common in these countries. The woman have equal economic, educational and legal opportunities and this has made them conscious about the control of population.
This his reverse or sloved down the birth rate and death rate. This has brought a balance in population growth and economic growth.
   C.2. Group Discussion:
Discuss the following in groups or pairs:
1. “Rising population and deforestation are likely to damage the quality of life on the earth.”

                COMPOSITION
A letter to your friend emphasising the need of population control.
Patna,5th April, 2009
Dear Sonu,
How are you ? Hope this finds you in good health! You must have been enjoying the stay with your parents there.
How do you find Delhi ! Is it very hot and dusty ? Do you find the problem of noise pollution and the problem of air pollution in Delhi ? You see most of the big cities in our country are getting over crowded day by day. People are forced to live in small flats and houses. There are more number of people to occupy limited available space.
There is urgent need to control our over growing population otherwise we will not be able to keep pace with our economic growth. We will not be in a position to raise the housing will remain unsolved and a big percentage of our population will continue to remain below poverty line. The education of children is another area which would concern our nation due to fast growing population of the country. The children must get education.
We should make the citizen of India conscious about this burning problem of our society so that we are able to live with peace, prosperity and honour.
I have just given my thoughts on this vital issue before our country. We have to make a combined effort to solve this .
Pay my regards to your parents.
          Your loving
Mr. Sonu Kumar
37. Dwarka Enclave
New Delhi                          Chintan

                WORD STUDY
1. Dictionary Use :
Ex.1. Correct the spelling of the following questions words :
existense      specis.      allready
Contineu.    eventualy.     fourty
resorses.     probelm       compain
Ans.existence   species already
Continue    eventually    Forty
resources   Problem      campaign
Q.2. Fill in the blanks with suitable form of words given below:
Ex. We are……..our forest.(destroy)
We are destroying our forest.
Rise    lose     go       grow
1. As population………up, more people are forced to convert forests into farmlands.
2.  In fact would population has been rapidly ………….up.
3. As population ……….up, so does pollution of river, lakes, air, drinking water and soil.
4. As the trees of Nepal are cut down, it’s topsoil is being……………

Ans. 1. goes  2. going  3. goows  4.lost
Q.3. Match the following words in column A with the meanings in column B.
A                                   B
(i) grin                       (a) unsatisfied
(ii) decisive              (b) cut down
(iii) affluent              (c) to support
(iv) insatiable      (d) server, horrible
(V) falled                 (e) wealthy
(Vi) Sustain             (f) deciding
Ans.
(i) grim              (d) service, horrible
(ii) decisive        (f) deciding
(iii) affluent        (e) wealthy
(iv) insatiable     (a) unsatisfied
(V) falled             (b) cut down
(Vi) sustain         (c) to support.

                  GRAMMAR
Look at the following sentences :
It may appear that, when it comes to something as valuable as a human being, the more we have, the better off we are.
Here ‘ may ‘ indicate possibility, ‘ May ‘ is a ‘ Modal ‘ or Model Auxiliary’ can, may, shall, will, could, might, should, would, must ,dare, need. Used to and ought to are called Models or Modal Auxiliaries.
Now look at the following
sentences :
May I come in, please ? Yes, you may. (Here ‘ may ‘ indicates permission) Ravi can solve this problem (Here ‘ can ‘  indicates ability)
‘ can ‘  indicates ‘ power, capacity, ability ; in informal use permission’ also.  He said that he could do it  (indirect  speech).
When Rohit was young, he could run twenty miles (Here ‘ could ‘ indicates  pat ability , power’.)
‘ Could ‘ indicates ‘past ability/ Power ? Capacity ‘ etc. It also indicates on unreal situation and a polite request.
You must do as you are told. (Here ‘ must ‘ indicates ‘ compulsion ‘)
You must have heard about Pt. Nehru ( Here ‘ must ‘ indicates ‘ strong Possibility ‘)
‘ Must ‘ indicates ‘ compulsion, strong Possibility, duty , certainty’.
We should love our country ( Here ‘ should ‘ indicates ‘ duty ‘)
Should indicates ‘ duty, obligations advice, instructions .’
Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with suitable Model given below :
Can    may    should   Could    must
(i) we ……..serve our master honestly.
(ii) Soldiers………obey their commander.
(iii) It ……………rain today.

(iv) I ………………..lift this box.
(v) He said that he …………..catch a cobra.
(vi) Jack was so strong that one …………not defeat him.
(vii) Candidates……………answer all the questions.
(viii) We ……….. honour our National Flag.
(ix) My father…………be late today.
(X) I ……………..win the race.

Ans. (i) should, (ii) must , (iii) may,(iv) Can, (v) Can, (vi) could, (vii) Should , (viii) must , (ix) may , (x) will.

G. Translation
     Translate the Following sentence into English :
1. तुम्हें माता-पिता की आज्ञा माननी चाहिए।
2. तुम यह ले सकते हो ।
3. हमें सत्य बोलना चाहिए।
4. सोनू परीक्षा में उत्तीर्ण हो सका ।
5. क्या तुम मेरी मदद कर सकते हो ।
6. क्या आज वर्षा होगी ।
7. उसे वहाँ जाने की जरूरत नहीं है ।
8. क्या मैं आपकी मदद कर सकता हूँ ।
9. हमें जल प्रदूषित नहीं करनी चाहिए।
10. हमलोग कल बाढ़ पीड़ितों की सेवा करने जायेंगे ।
Ans. 1. You should obey your parents.
2. You may take this.
3. We should speak truth.
4. Sonu could pass the examination.
5. Can you help me ?
6. Is it going to rain today ? Or will if rain today ?
7. He need not go there.
8. May I help you ?
9. We should not pollute water.
10. We will go tomorrow to help the flood victims.

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