8th english

bihar board class 8th english | SIKKIM

SIKKIM

bihar board class 8th english

class – 8

subject – english

lesson 9 – SIKKIM

 SIKKIM
[ HINDI TRANSLATION OF THE CHAPTER ]

Sikkim is a tiny……… state of India .
Word meaning : Tiny ( adj ) [ टाइनी ] = छोटा | Eastern ( adj ) [ इस्टन ] = पूर्वी , पूर्व देश का । Rounded ( adj ) [ राउन्डेड ] = घिरा हुआ । Plateau ( n ) [ प्लेटो ] = पठार । Valley ( n ) [ वैली ] = घाटी । Inhabitants ( n ) [ इनहैबिटेन्ट्स ] = निवासी ।
अर्थ — पूर्वी हिमालय के बीच के क्षेत्र में एक छोटा – सा राज्य बसा हुआ है , जिसका नाम है सिक्किम । इसके उत्तर में स्थित है तिब्बत के पठार , पूर्वी दिशा में है तिब्बत देश के चुम्बी घाटी और भूटान की राजधानी । सिक्किम के पश्चिम दिशा में नेपाल है तो दक्षिण दिशा में स्थित है , दार्जिलिंग ( पश्चिम बंगाल ) । सन् 1975 ई . में सिक्किम बना था , भारत देश का बाईसवाँ राज्य । यहाँ कि आबादी बेहद कम है — मात्र 540 , 493 निवासी हैं यहाँ । यहाँ की भूमि का क्षेत्रफल है 7,096 वर्ग किलोमीटर । भारत देश का सबसे कम आबादी वाला राज्य सिक्किम है ।

The word ‘ Sikkim ….. valley of rice .

Word meaning : Combination ( n ) [ कम्बीनेशन ] = मिला हुआ , संयुक्त । Refer ence ( n ) [ रेफरेन्स ] = सन्दर्भ । Built ( v ) [ बिल्ट ] = बना हुआ । Ruler ( m ) [ रूलर ] = शासक ।
अर्थ — ‘ सिक्किम ‘ शब्द ‘ सु ‘ ( अर्थ है- ” नया ” ) और ‘ ख्यीम ‘ इन दो शब्दों के मेल से बना एक नया शब्द है जिसका अर्थ होता है ” महल ” अथवा ” घर ” । अत : इस नये शब्द का माने। हुआ नया घर अथवा नया महल । यह शब्द इस राज्य के पहले शासक फुन्टसोक नामग्याल के महल को लेकर गढ़ा गया शब्द है , यानी कि उस शासक का नया महल या नया घर । तिब्ब्ती नाम सिक्किम बना है ” डेनजोंग ‘ । ‘ डेनजोंग ‘ शब्द का अर्थ है ‘ चावल की घाटी ‘ ।

Sikkim is divided……… respectively .

Word meaning : Include ( v ) [ इनक्लूड ] = शामिल करना । Headquarter ( n ) [ हेडक्वार्टर = मुख्यालय | Respectively ( adv ) [ रेस्पेक्टिवली ] = क्रमशः ।

अर्थ– सिक्किम राज्य को चार भागों में बांटा गया है । पूर्वी सिक्किम , पश्चिम सिक्किम , उत्तरी सिक्किम और दक्षिणी सिक्किम । इसका जिला मुख्यालय क्रमशः निम्न हैं — गंगटोक , गेजिंग , मंगन और नामची ।

Gangtok is the ……. deity of Sikkim .

Word meaning : Literally ( adv ) [ लिटरली ] = शाब्दिक । Magnificent ( adj ) [ मैग्नीफिसेन्ट ] = शानदार । Deity ( n ) [ डेटी ] = देवता ।

अर्थ– सिक्किम की राजधानी का नाम है गैंगटोक । इस शब्द का शाब्दिक अर्थ होता है ‘ ऊंची पहाड़ी ‘ । यहाँ पर कंचनजंघा का अद्भुत शानदार नजारा दिखता है । जो कि बर्फ से ढंका हुआ बड़ा शानदार – सुन्दर दिखता है । यह दुनिया का तीसरा सबसे बड़ा पर्वत – चोटी है जिसे यहाँ देवता के समान पूजा जाता है ।

Sikkim is rich ….. flower of Sikkim .

Word meaning : Flora ( n ) [ फ्लोरा ] = वनस्पति । Fauna ( n ) [ फॉना ] = जीव – जन्तु । Monasteries ( n ) [ मानेस्टरीज ] = मठ । Orchid ( n ) [ ऑरकिड ] = बगीचा रंग – बिरंगे फूलों और पौधों का ।

अर्थ – सिक्किम को वनस्पतियों और जीव – जन्तुओं के मामले में अत्यन्त समृद्ध माना जाता है । यहाँ नदियाँ धाराएँ , मठ और झीलें भी खूब हैं । यहाँ कई प्रकार के पाये जाने वाले पौधों – पेड़ों में शामिल हैं राजकीय पेड़ रोडोडेन्ड्रेन , ऑर्किड , गूलर , केला का पेड़ , साल पेड़ और बाँस । अन्य जो पेड़ यहाँ प्राप्त हैं उनमें शामिल हैं , बलूत , अखरोट , मैपल नामक छायादार पेड़ , भोजपत्र , एल्डर , चम्पा । ये सब काफी मात्रा में पाये जाते हैं । रंग – बिरंगा डेन्ड्रोबियम नोबाइल यहाँ का राजकीय फूल है ।

The fauna of Sikkim……. beast of burden .

( Page – 88 ) Word meaning : Leopard ( n ) [ लेपर्ड ] = तेंदुआ , चीता । Musk deer ( n ) [ मस्क डीअर ) = कस्तूरी मृग / हिरण । Hog ( n ) [ हॉग ] = बधिया किया हुआ सूअर | Reared ( v ) [ रीअड ) = पालना ।

अर्थ –सिक्किम में नाना प्रकार के जानवर पाये जाते हैं । वहाँ पाये जाने वाले जानवरों में शामिल हैं — कस्तूरी मृग , गिलहरी , भोरल नामक जंगली जानवर , हिमालयी तहर , लाल पंडा , हिमालयी मारमट ( एक प्रकार की गिलहरी ) , सेरो नामक जानवर , मूंकने वाला हिरण , आम तौर पर पाया जाने वाला लंगूर , हिमालयी काला भालू , चितकबरा तेंदुआ , संगमरमर के जैसी सफेद रंग की बिल्लियाँ , तेंदुआ के जैसी बिल्ली , जंगली कुत्ता , तिब्बती भेड़िया , बधिया किया हुआ सूअर , रीछ , बिनटूटंग नामक जंगली जानवर , जंगली बिल्ली और बिल्ली के जैसी एक जंगली जन्तु सिवेट नाम की । सबसे ज्यादा यहाँ पर याक नामक तिब्बती जानवर पाया जाता है जिसे अधिकतर लोग दूध के लिए , माँस के लिए और बोझा ढोने के लिए उपयोग में लाते हैं ।

The birds found ………… and robins .

Word meaning : Pheasant ( n ) [ फेजन्ट ] = तीतर पक्षी | Crimson ( adj ) [ क्रिमसन ] = गहरे लाल रंग का । Partridge ( n ) [ पारट्रिज ] = तीतर । Rooster ( n ) [ रूस्टर ] = मुर्गा । Quail ) n ) [ क्वेल ] = बटेर । Plover ( n ) [ प्लोवर ] = बुलबुल – सी चिड़िया | Robin ( n ) [ गबिन ] = एक गानेवाली चिड़िया , लाल छाती वाली ।सम्पर्क भाषा ।

अर्थ -सिक्किम में कई प्रकार के पक्षी पाये जाते हैं । उन पक्षियों में से प्रमुख हैं – इम्पियन फेजन्ट ( तीतर ) , गहरे लाल रंग का सींगों वाला फैजन्ट , बर्फ के रंग का तीतर , बर्फ में रहने वाला मुर्गा , लैमरगीयर , गिद्ध । इनके साथ – साथ यहाँ सुनहरे रंग की चील , बटेर , बुलबुल , कुक्कुट या जंगली मुर्गा , टिटिहरी पक्षी , कबूतर , बैबलर और रॉबिन नामक गाने वाली चिड़ियाँ भी पायी जाती है ।

Sikkim is predominantly …….. and Tamang .

Word meaning : Predominantly ( adv ) [ प्रिडॉमिनेन्टली ] = मुख्य तौर पर । In habited ( v ) [ इनहैविटेड ] = बसा हुआ । Lingua Franca ( n ) [ लिंगुआ फ्रैंका ] = मुख्य भाषा ,

अर्थ – सिक्किम में मुख्य तौर पर लेप्चा , नेपाली और भूटिया रहा करते हैं । सिक्किम में मुख्य तौर पर बोली जाने वाली भाषा है नेपाली । वैसे यहाँ पर हिन्दी और अंग्रेजी भाषा भी बोली और समझी जाती है जो अन्य भाषाएँ भूटिया , गुरूग , लेप्चा , लिम्बू , मगर , नेवरी , राई , शेरपा , सुनुवार और तमंग ।

The people in the …….iron and coal .

Word meaning : Rural ( adj ) [ रूरल ] = ग्रामीण , गाँव का । Cardamom ( m ) [ कारडमम ] = इलायची नामक मसाला । Ginger ( n ) [ जिन्जर ] = अदरक । Southern ( adj ) [ साउदन ] = दक्षिणी । Producer ( n ) [ प्रोड्यूसर ] = उत्पादक । Mineral ( n ) [ मिनरल ] = खनिज I Copper ( n ) [ कॉपर ] = ताँबा । Graphite ( n ) [ ग्रेफाइट ] = काला सीसा ( एक खनिज ) ।

अर्थ -सिक्किम के गाँवों में लोग कई प्रकार की चीजें उपजाते हैं । उनमें शामिल हैं — इलायची , अदरक , संतरा , सेब , चाय और रंग – बिरंगे फूल । दक्षिणी तरफ पहाड़ियों के पास चावल भी उपजाए जाते हैं । भारत में सबसे ज्यादा इलायची यहीं से जाता है । जो खनिज यहाँ निकाले जाते हैं । उनमें शामिल हैं ताँबा , डोलोमाइट , चूना , ग्रेफाइट ( काला सीसा ) , अभ्रक , लोहा और कोयला ।

The people of …….. Dasain and Christmas .

: Celebrate ( v ) [ सेलिब्रेट ] = मनाना ( किसी उत्सव को ) | Major ( n ) [ मेजर ] = प्रमुख । Such as ( phr ) [ सच एज ] = जैसे कि । Mostly ( adv ) [ मोस्टली ] = अधिकतर | Associate ( v ) [ एसोसिएटेड ] = जुड़ा हुआ । Popular ( adj [ पोप्यूलर ] = चर्चित

अर्थ – सिक्किम के लोग दिवाली और दशहरा जैसे भारतीय पर्व – त्योहारों को भी मनाया करते हैं । वैसे वहाँ के लोग बुद्ध भगवान को ज्यादा मानते हैं इसलिए बौद्ध धर्म के पर्व को ज्यादा मनाते हैं । यहाँ के प्रमुख पर्व हैं — लोसट , सागा दावा , लबाब घूचिन , फंग लबसोल , द्रूपका तेसी , बुमच , लूसूंग , तिहार , दसेन और क्रिसमस ।

Summary :
Sikkim is a tiny mountainous state . It is the least populated state of India . In 1975 , Sikkim became the 22nd state of India . It has only 540 , 493 inhabitants and a total area of 7,096 square kilometres .
The word ‘ Sikkim ‘ means ‘ new house ‘ or ‘ new palace ‘ . Gangtok is the capi tal of Sikkim . The Tibetan name for Sikkim is ‘ Denjong ‘ which means the ‘ val ley of rice ‘ . It is a very beautiful place for tourism . It is rich and flora and fauna . Nepali is the main language of Sikkim . Here people mostly follow ‘ Buddhism ‘ . So , they mostly celebrate the festivals of buddhist . Christmas , Diwali and Dussehra are also celebrated by the people of Sikkim .

सारांश –
सिक्किम एक पहाड़ी राज्य है । यह भारत का सबसे कम आबादी वाला राज्य है । 1975 में सिक्किम भारत का बाइसवाँ ( 22 वाँ ) राज्य बना । यहाँ की आबादी है , मात्र 540 , 493 और यहाँ का कुल क्षेत्रफल है 7,096 वर्ग किलोमीटर । ‘ सिक्किम ‘ शब्द का अर्थ है ‘ नया घर ‘ या ‘ नया महल ‘ । गंगटोक सिक्किम की राजधानी है । सिक्किम का तिब्बती नाम ‘ डेनजोंग ‘ है जिसका शाब्दिक अर्थ है ‘ चावल की घाटी ‘ । यह पर्यटन 1के लिए उत्तम स्थल है । यह राज्य वनस्पतियों और जन्तुओं के मामले में समृद्ध है । सिक्किम की मुख्य भाषा नेपाली है । यहाँ के लोग ज्यादातर बौद्ध धर्म को मानते हैं । इसलिए यहाँ अधिकतर बौद्ध धर्म से जुड़े पर्व ही मनाये जाते हैं । वैसे यहाँ के निवासी क्रिसमस , दिवाली और दशहरा भी मनाते हैं ।

                       EXERCISE

A WARMER
Have you ever visited a mountainous state ? If yes , tell the class about its people , food habits , dresses , climate etc.
Ans . Yes , I have once visited a mountainous state . I had gone to Ooti . People there are simple and hard working . They dress up simply and eat all kind of food vegetarian and non – vegetarian. The climate over there is cool and calm .
B. LET’S COMPREHEND
B.1 . THINK AND TELL
Q.1 . Why is Sikkim considered a tiny state ?
Ans . Sikkim has only 540,493 in habitants and a total area of 7,096 square kilometres . It is the least populated state of India . So. Sikkim is considerd , as a tiny state .
Q. 2. By which plateau is Sikkim bounded in the north ? What is in the north of India ?
Ans . In the north , Sikkim is bounded by the Tibetan plateau . In the north of India lies the Himalayas .
Q. 3. When did Sikkim become a state of India ? When did Bihar become a state ?
Ans . Sikkim became a state of India in the year 1975. Bihar became a state one hundred years ago – in 1912 on 22 March . So , we celebrate 22 March as Bihar Day ‘ .
Q.4 . The word ‘ Sikkim ‘ is a combination of which two words ? What do they mean ? Can you tell how has Bihar got its name ?
Ans . The word ‘ Sikkim is a combination of two words – ‘ Su ‘ and ‘ Khyim !. Su means ‘ new ‘ and Khyim means ‘ palace ‘ or ‘ house ‘ . So , the word ‘ Sikkim means ‘ New place or house ‘ .
Bihar got its name from the word ‘ Vihar ‘ . There were many Bauddha Vihars in Bihar . Because of these Vihars , Bihar was named after them . Vihar became Bihar .
Q. 5. Who are the prime inhabitants of Sikkim ?
Ans . Lepchas , the Nepalese and the Bhutias are the prime inhabitants of Sikkim .
B.2 . THINK AND WRITE
B.2.1 . Say whether the following are true or false according to the passage . Write ‘ T ‘ for true and ‘ F ‘ false .
( 1 ) Sikkim is a tiny mountainous state in western Himalayas .
( 2 ) Sikkim became the 21 ” state of India in 1975 .
( 3 ) Gangtok is the capital of Sikkim . ( 4 ) English and Hindi are not spoken in Sikkim .
( 5 ) Sikkim is the biggest producer of cardamom in India .
( 6 ) The mineral mines in Sikkim are gold and silver .
( 7 ) The people of Sikkim mostly follow Hinduism .
Ans . 1. ( F ) . 2. ( F ) . 3. ( T ) . 4. ( F ) . 5. ( T ) , 6. ( F ) , 7. ( F ) .
B.2.2 . Answer the following questions in about 30 words .
Q. 1. Write the boundary of Sikkim .

Ans . Sikkim is bounded by Tibetan Plateau in the north direction , the Chumbi Valley of Tibet and the kingdom of Bhutan is in the east . Nepal is in the west and Darjeeling ( West Bengal ) in the south direction .
Q.2 . What is the Tibetan name of Sikkim ? What does it mean ?
Ans . The Tibetan name for Sikkim is ‘ Denjong ‘ . Literally , it means the ” valley of rice ” .
Q. 3. Which is the guardian deity of Sikkim ? What do you know about it ?

Ans . ” Kanchenjunga ‘ is regarded as the deity of Sikkim . It is the world’s third highest peak .
Q. 4. What are the chief flora and fauna found in Sikkim ?
Ans . Chief flora found in Sikkim are – Rhododendron ( the state tree ) , orchid , fig , banana , sal tree and bamboo . Chief fauna are — snow leopard , musk deer , Bhoral , Himalayan Tahr , the red panda etc.

B.2.3 . Answer the following questions in not more than 50 words .
Q. 1. How many districts are there in Sikkim ? Write them with their re spective headquarters . Do you know how many districts are there in our state ?
Ans . Sikkim is divided into four districts – East Sikkim , West Sikkim , North Sikkim and South Sikkim . The district headquarters are Gangtok , Geyzing , Mangan and Namchi respectively . In our state Bihar there are 38 districts .
Q. 2. Which birds are found in Sikkim ? Name some of them .
Ans . In Sikkim many kinds of birds are found . Among them are – the Impeyan pheasant , the crimson hormed pheasant , the snow partridge , the snow rooster , the lammergeyer and griffon vultures , as well as golden eagells , quail , plovers , woodcock , sandpipers , pigeons , babblers and robins .
Q. 3. Write about the inhabitants and languages of Sikkim .
Ans . The prime inhabitants of Sikkim are the Lepchas , the Nepalese and the Bhutias . Nepali is the lingua franca ( main language ) of Sikkim . English and Hindi are also spoken there other languages spoken in Sikkim are Bhutia , Gurung , Lepcha , Limbu , Magar , Newari , Rai , Sherpa , Sunuwar and Tamang .
Q. 4. Which are the main festivals of India ? Can you name some festivals of Bihar ?
Ans . The main festivals of India are – Holi , Diwali , Dussehra , Id , Christ mas .
Some festivals of Bihar are — Chatth , Holi , Diwali , Dussehra , Rakhi etc.

C. WORD STUDY
C.1 . Fill in the blanks with the suitable words from the box .
high hill mined follow
eastern flower festivals
1. Sikkim is in the heart of …………
2. Literally Gangtok means Himalayas .3 . The orchid Dendrobium nobile is the state ……………….. of Sikkim .
4 . The minerals ……………… in Sikkim are copper , dolomite etc.
5 . The people of Sikkim mostly ……………….. Buddhism .
6. The popular …………….. of Sikkim are Losar , Loscong , etc.
Ans . 1. eastern , 2. high hills , 3. flower , 4. mined , 5. follow , 6. festivals .
C.2 . Given below are some words in jumble . Correct them . One has been done for you .
vaylle – valley
snouiatuomn , dneduob , tsbae , tvalifse , einm.
Ans . Jumbled words —Correct words
Snouiatuomi ——mountainous
dneduob ———-bounded
tsbac————- beast
tvalifse ———–festival
einm————– mine .
C.3 . Match the word given in column ‘ A ‘ with their meanings in column ‘ B ‘ .
Column A                    Column B
1 . tiny                      surrounded
2. kingdom             grower
3. burden                 load
4. bounded              small
5. producer             empire

Ans .
Column A                     Column B
1. tiny                              small
2. kingdom                    empire
3. burden                         load
4. bounded                 surrounded
5. producer                     grower

D. GRAMMAR
Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions given in the box below .
of , for , off , on , at , to
( a ) He has come here …………. treatment .
( b ) Switch …………. the light .
( C ) Our M. M. P. is …………. hunger strike .
( d ) Seema is fond ………… sweats . ( e ) Look…….. …. the picture .
( f ) I prefer tea …………. coffee .

Ans . ( a ) for , ( b ) off , ( c ) on , ( d ) of , ( e ) at , ( f ) to .

D.2 . Look at the following sentences from the lesson .
a. Sikkim is divided into four districts which include …….
b . Sikkim is predominantly inhabitated by the Lepchas , the Nepalese , and the Bhutias .
These two sentences are in the passive voice . The passive voice is formed by using a form of be + past participle . It is sometimes followed with a by phrase ; e.g.
Godan was written by Premchand .
The active voice focuses on the person who performs the action ; c.g. , in ” Premchand wrote Godan . ‘ whereas the passive voice focuses on the receiver of the action.
When the verb is in the active voice , the subject performs the action .
When the verb is in the passive voice , the subject receives the action .
Active : The man ate the fish .
Passive : The fish was eaten by the man .
Passive voice can be used with different tenses and with modals . The tense of the sentence is shown by the verb be . You can use the past participle with every tense . You can see in the following table how the verb in active sen tence are changed in passive sentences .
TENSES.                           ACTIVE VOICE Simple present tense —–I eat food.
Pre. conti..tense—–I am eating food . Past simple tense—– I ate food .
Past conti. tense— I was eating food. Pre. perfect simple–I have eaten food . Pre.per.con.–I have been eating food . Past perfect ——-I had eaten food .
Past perf con. -I had been eating food.
Simple future tense—- I will eat food . Future conti..tense-I will be eating food. Fut.perf tense—I will have eaten food . Future perfect conti—I will have been
           eating food .
PASSIVE VOICE

Food is eaten by me .
Food is being eaten by me.
Food was eaten by me .
Food was being eaten by me .
Food has been eaten by me .
Food has been being eaten by me . Food had been eaten by me .
Food had been being eaten by me . Food will be eaten by me .
Food will be being eaten by me .
Food will have been eaten by me . Food will have been being eaten by me .

We don’t use do does / did with the passive voice .
The movie wasn’t made in Ranchi . ( NOT : The movie didn’t made / make in Ranchi . )
If two verbs in the passive voice are connected with and , we do not repeat be .
The Oscar ceremony is televised and seen by millions of people .
There is a difference in pronouns in an active sentence and a passive sen tence . After by , the object pronoun is used .
ACTIVE : She saw him .
PASSIVE : He was seen by her . ACTIVE : They helped us .
PASSIVE : We were helped by them .

D.2.1 . Pick out five active sentences and five passive sentences from the following text .
I was given three movie passes for my birthday . I invited two of my friends to go with me . We went to a new movie theatre / cinema hall in Patna . We saw a movie that was directed by Prakash Jha . This was my first time in a movie theatre / cinema hall , and several things happened that were unusual for me .
I was surprised that people were eating during the movie . Pocorn , potato chips , samosas and cold drink are sold in the theatre lobby . I don’t understand why people buy food to eat during the movie . Also , coming attractions are shown ) before the movie . Another unusual thing was that at the end of the movie , nobody applauded . While the credits were being shown ) , people were leaving .
It was also strange for me that popcorn boxes and empty packets of potato chips were left on the floor of the theatre / cinema hall .
Anyway , in spite of all these surprises , I enjoyed the movie very much .

Ans . ( i ) Five active sentences from the text :
( 1 ) Iinvited two of my friends to go with me .
( 2 ) We went to a new movie theatre / cinema hall in Patna .
( 3 ) I was surprised that people were eating during the movie .
( 4 ) I don’t understand why people buy food to eat during the movie .
( 5 ) Anyway , in spite of all these surprises , I enjoyed the movie very much .
( ii ) Five Passive sentences from the text :
( 1 ) I was given three movie passes for my birthday .
( 2 ) We say a movie that was directed by Prakash Jha .
( 3 ) This was my first time in a movie theatry / cinema hall and several things happened that were unusual for me . ( 4 ) Also , coming attractions are shown before the movie .
( 5 ) While the credits were being shown , people were leaving .

D.2.2 . Fill in the blanks with the passive voice of the verb , using the tense given in the brackets .
Example : ( simple present ; give )
The best actor is given an Oscar .
a . ( simple present : see )
The awards ceremony ……by millions of people  .
b . ( future : choose )
Which actor …….. ……. next year ?
c . ( simple past : give )
Salman Khan …….. an award for Best Actor , for Dabang .
d . ( modal : can ; see )
The movie ………. at many cinema halls .
e.( present continuous : show )
A good movie ……….. at the cinema hall near my house.
f . ( simple past : give )
In 2010 , no award ………………… to an Indian actor .
Ans . ( a ) is seen , ( b ) will be chosen , ( c ) was given . ( d ) can be seen . ( being shown . ( 1 ) was given .

D.2.3 . Change from active to passive . Do not mention the performer . Use the same tense as the underlined verb . Example : People will see the movie on TV .
The movie will be seen on TV .
a .They gave A. R. Rahman an Oscar for his music in Slumde Millionaries ,
b . Which actor will they choose next year ?
c . People have seen Amitabh Bachchan in many movies .
d . You should see ‘ Robot ‘ on a big screen .
e . They are filming a new movie in Rajgir .
f . They don’t permit children under is to see some movie . When did they make ‘ Deewar ‘ ?
Ans . ( a ) An oscar will be given for music in Slum dog Millionaries ‘ .
( b ) Who will be chosen next year ? ( c ) Amitabh Bachchan has been seen in many movies .
( d ) Robot should be seen on a big screen .
( e ) A new movie is being filmed in Rajgir .
( f ) Children under 18 are not permitted to see some movies .
( g ) When was Deewar made ?

D.2.4 . The following sentences would be better in active voice because the performer is a specific person . Change these sentences to active voice.
Use the same tense .
Gangtok is liked by me .-> like Gangtok .
a. A video will be rented by me .
b . The video should be returned by me .
c.The winner was predicted by the reviewer .
d . The winner’s name is being announced by Amitabh Bachchan .
e. The Kaun Benega Karorpati serial was being watched by me whe my friend came .
f . Good movies have been made by Aamir Khan .
g. A Filmfare Award was won by Shahrukh Khan .
h . Was the music composed by A. R. Rahman ?
i . Were the tickets bought by you ?
j The students will be shown a movie by the teacher .
Ans .
( a ) I will rent a video ,
( b ) I should return the video .
( c ) The reviwer predicted the winner . ( d ) Amitabh Bachchan is announcing the winner’s name .
( e ) I was watching the serial Kaun Banega Karorpati when my friend came .
( f ) Aamir Khan has made good movies .
( g ) Shahrukh Khan won a Film fare Award .
( h ) Did A. R. Rahman compose the music ?
( i ) Did you buy the tickets ?
( j ) The teacher will show a movie to the students .

E LET’S LISTEN , WRITE AND TALK

E.1 . Listen to your teacher and complete the following table on Nagaland .
Nagaland Nagaland is a hill state located in the north eastern part of India . It has a population of 1,988,636 people , and a total area of 16,579 km . Thus , it is one of the smallest states of India . After the independence of India in 1947 , the area remained a part of the province of Assam . In 1963 , Nagaland officially became a state . It borders the state of Assam to the west , Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north , Myanmar to the east and Manipur to the south . The capital of Nagaland is Kohima . The largest city is Dimapur .
Nagaland is rich in flora and fauna . Pangolins , porcupines , elephants , leop ards , beats , many species of monkeys , sambar , deers , oxen and buffaloes are abundantly found in the forests of Nagaland . The Great Indian Hornbill is one of the most famous birds found in the state .
The tribes of Nagaland are Angami , Ao , Chakesang , Chang , Khienmungan , Kuki , Konyak , Ltha , Phom , Pochury , Rengma , Sema . Sangtam , Yimchunger and Zeliang . The Angamis , Aos , Konyaks and Semas are the largest Naga tribes . English is the official language of Nagaland . The major languages of the state include Ao . Angami or Tenyidie , Chakesang , Chang , Khienmungan , Konyak , Lotha , Phom , Pochury , Rengma , Sema , Sangtam , Yimchunger , Liangemi , Kuki and Zeme . The contact or link language is Nagamese .
Weaving is a traditional art in Nagaland . Each of the major tribes has its own unique designs and colours . The tate produces shawls , shoulder bags , deco rative spears , table mats , wood carvings and bamboo works . Tribal dances add colour and happiness to the lives of the Naga people . War dances and dances belonging to distinctive tribes are a major art form in Nagaland .
The man festivals of the various tribes are . Sekrenyi , Ngada , Nga – Ngai , Mimkut , Tsukhenyi , Nazu , Matsu , Aoling , Monyu , Nkanyulum , Metemneo , Amongmong , Tokhuemong and Tuluni .
Agriculture is the most important economic activity in Nagaland . The crops include rice , maize or corn , milets , pulses , tobacco , oilseeds , sugarcane , pota toes and fibres .

Complete the table below :
Neighbouring states         Nagaland
Year of becoming a state
Population
Capital
Animals
Tribes
Languages
Handicrafts
Festivals
Crops

Ans .
         Nagaland
Neighbouring states–Assam in west , Arunachal . Pradesh and part of Assam to the north .Myamar in the east and Manipur in the south .

Year of becoming a state– In 1963 , Nagaland afficially became a state .

Population— 1.988,636 people .

Capital ——Kohima .

Animals —-Pangolins , porcupines , elephants , leopardi bears , many species of monkeys , samba deers , oxen , buffaloes etc.

Tribes —–Angami , Ao , Chakesang , Chang . Khienmunge Kuki , Konyak , Lotha , Phon , Pochury , Rengma Sema , Sangtam , Yim Chunger and Zeliang .

Languages— Contact or link language Nagmese Maja languages — Ao , Angami or Tenyidie Chakesang , Chang , Khienmungan , Konyak Lotha , Phor , Pochury , Rengma , Sema , Sangtam Yimchunger , Liangmei , Kuki and Zeme .

Handicrafts— Shawls , shoulder bags , decorative spears , table mats , wood carvings and bamboo works .

Festivals —-Sekrenyi . Ngada , Nga – Ngai , Mimkut Tsukhenyi , Nazu , Moatsu , Aoling , Monyu Nkanyulum , Metemneo , Amongmong Tokhuemong and Tuluni .
Crops —-Rice , maize or corn , millets , pulses , tobacco oilseeds , sugarcane , potatoes and fibres .

E.2 . Talk about your own state Bihar .

Ans . Bihar is bounded by West Bengal in the east , the state of Uttar Prades in the West , Nepal in the north and Jharkhan in the South . In 1912 , on 220 March , Bihar state was founded . Earlier it was a part of Joint Bengal .
Many great personalities took birth in Bengal . The great politician teacher Chanakya , king Chandragupta , Ashoka , Amrapali , Jarsasandh , Janak , Jai Prakash Narayan , Shershah Suri , Dr. Rajendra Prasad , Babu Kunwar Singh etc. there are a big list of such famous personalities .
Patna is the capital of Bihar . There are 38 districs in Bihar . Bihar has the 12th position for area in the country . The High Court of the state is in Patna , the Capital . The State language is Hindi and Urdu the other state language . Main ours of Bihar are— rice , wheat , maize and pulses and many vegetables are also grown here . The cash crops of Bihar are tobacco , chilly , jute , oil seeds . sugarcane , potato , onion etc. Main minerals of Bihar are — sulphur , baucxite , tin , mica , aesbestos . Bihar is rich in flora and fauna .
There are many tourist centres in Bihar Such as — Bodhgaya , Gaya , Nalanda , Rajgir , Sasaram , Patna , Pawapuri , Rajgir , Patna City , Madhubani — for its famous painting , Kakolat – for its waterfall , in Nawada etc.

F. COMPOSITION

Write a letter to your pen friend describing the beauty of the place where you live and request him to visit this place during summer vacation . Ans .
Dear Manav,
I was glad to receive your letter after a long period of time . It cheered me to know that all in your family are very well .
I would like to invite you to visit Rajgir- the place where I live . You will surely be glad to be here– in the place of beauty . Natural scenery — the moun tains , gardens and other beautiful places will surely enchant and fascinate you .
Hot springs of Rajgir are widely famous . I am sure you will enjoy bathing in the hot spring . Then , the electric rope way is also famous here . Riding on it is a great experience when you raise high on the ropeway its fearful scene to look down at the blind velley . One fears to fell down in the valley despite seat ing on the ropeway’s chair .
Please let me know soon of your kind coming . A grand time of travelling is of course , assured by me .

        Yours
     Amitabh

G. TRANSLATION
हमारे राज्य का नाम बिहार है । यह देश के बड़े राज्यों में से एक है । इसकी राजधानी पटना है जो गंगा के तट पर स्थित है । यहाँ मुख्य रूप से हिन्दी भाषाएँ बोली जाती हैं । बिहार के लोगों का मुख्य पेशा कृषि है । यहाँ मुख्य रूप से चावल , गेहूँ , गन्ना , मक्का इत्यादि उपजाया जाता है ।
Ans .
The name of our state is Bihar . It is one of the biggest states of the country . It’s capital is Patna which is situated on the bank of Ganga . Hindi languages are mainly spoken here . The main occupation of the people of Bihar is agriculture . Here mainly rice , wheat , sugarcane , maize are grown .

H. ACTIVITY
( 1 ) Look at the map of India and list the mountainous states . Also find out the most popular tourist places in these states . Which of them would you like to visit and why ?
Ans . Some mountainous states of India are -Sikkim , Assam , Jammu Kashmir , Himachal Pradesh , Nagaland , Jharkhand etc. Some popular tourist places – Kanchenjunga peak in Sikkim , Dal lake in Jammu and Kashmir etc

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