8th class english notes
class – 8
subject – english
lesson 8 – MEASURE FOR MEASURE
MEASURE FOR MEASURE
( जैसे को तैसा )
HINDI TRANSLATION OF THE CHAPTER
Krishna Deva Raya……… within the frame .
Word meaning : Patronage ( n ) [ पैट्रोनेज ] = मदद , संरक्षण । Scholar ( n ) स्कॉलर ] = विद्वान । Equally ( adv ) [ इक्वली ] = बराबर रूप से । Fond of ( phr ) [ फॉन्ड ऑफ ] = शौकीन होना किसी चीज का । Brilliant ( adj ) [ बिलिएन्ट ] = तेज , प्रतिभाशाली । Portrait ( n ) [ पोट्रेट ] = तस्वीर | Majestic ( n ) ( मैजेस्टिक ] = ‘ महाराजा । To come alive ( phr ) [ टू कम अलाइव ] = बिल्कुल सजीव – सा लगना ।
कृष्णदेव राय कला प्रेमी राजा थे । वह कलाकार – कवियों और विद्वानों को खूब मदद किया करते थे । एक बार उन्हें राजा वर्मा नामक नामी कलाकार के बारे में किसी ने बताया । वह एक अच्छा चित्रकार था । राजा वर्मा को उन्होंने अपने दरबार में बुलाया और अपना आदमकद चित्र बनाने को कहा । राजा वर्मा ने राजा की बड़ी शानदार तस्वीर बनाई । उस तस्वीर में राजा कृष्णदेव राय साक्षात् सप्राण लग रहे थे । अपनी शानदार तस्वीर को देखकर राजा बड़े प्रसन्न हुए ।
Apart from thus…………..to the king.
Word meaning : Apart from ( phr ) [ अपार्ट फ्रॉम ] = किसी चीज से बिल्कुल अलग । Image ( n ) [ इमेज ] = आकृति । Skill ( n ) [ स्किल ] = कला , चतुराई ।
राजा कृष्णदेव राम की इस चित्र के साथ – साथ चित्रकार राजा वर्मा ने और भी कई स्त्री – पुरुषों के चित्र बनाये थे । उसने पुराने के प्रसिद्ध पात्रों ये भी सुन्दर चित्र बनाये थे । अपनी कला के लिए उसे दूर – दूर तक जाना जाता था । अपनी इस चित्र के कारण वह राजा का प्रिय और खासमखास बन गया ।
Overwhelmed by joy ……………chief ministership .
(Word meaning : Overwhelmed ( v ) [ ओवरव्हेलण्ड ] = अभिभूत होकर | Gener ous ( adj ) [ जेनरस ] = उदार , दानी । Impulse ( n ) [ इम्पल्स ] = प्रभाव । Reward ( n ) [ रिवार्ड ] = इनाम | Spur of agenerous impulse ( phr ) [ स्पर ऑफ अजेनरस इम्पल्स ] = कुछ कर बैठना अचानक से परिणाम की परवाह किये बिना । Chief ministership ( n ) [ चीफ मिनिस्टरशिप ] = मुख्यमंत्री का पद ।
खुशी से अभिभूत होते हुए कृष्णदेव राय ने कलाकार राजा वर्मा को अपने पास बुला भेजा । उन्होंने उस कलाकार से कुछ मांगने को कहा । राजा वर्मा से कुछ माँगते नहीं बना । तब अचानक ही राजा ने उसे इनाम के बतौर अपने राज्य का मुख्यमंत्री का पद दे दिया ।
Though Raja Varma …… fond of him .
Word meaning : though ( adv ) [ दो ] = यद्यपि | Whatsoever ( pron ) [ वाटसोएवर ] = जो कुछ भी । Dare ( v ) [ डेअर ] = दुःस्साहस करना | Administration ( m ) [ एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन ] = प्रशासन ।
यद्यपि राजा वर्मा एक अच्छा आदमी था । साथ ही वह एक अच्छा चित्रकार भी था , लेकिन उसे शासन के बारे में बिल्कुल ही जानकारी नहीं थी । उसके मुख्यमंत्री बनने के बाद राज्य में बहुत गड़बड़ी फैल गयो । लोगों में रोष व्याप्त हो गया । राजा वर्मा ने शासन सम्बन्धी जो भी निर्णय लिये वह अनुभवहीनता के कारण राज्य में असंतोष ही बढ़ाता गया । लोग उससे नाराज हो गये । पर राजा से लागों ने उसकी शिकायत करने की हिम्मत नहीं की क्योंकि राजा वर्मा , राजा का खासमखास और प्रियपात्र बन गया था ।
The elders……….. feast for the king .
Word meaning : Elders ( adj ) [ एल्डर्स ) = बड़े , बुजुर्ग व्यक्ति । Invited ( v ) [ इनवाइटेड ] = निमंत्रित किया । Courtier ( n ) [ कोर्टिअर ] = दरबारी । Meanwhile ( ads [ मीनवाइल ] = इसी बीच । Grand ( adj ) ( ग्रैन्ड ] = शानदार । Feast ( n ) [ फीस्ट ] = भोज ।
शहर के बड़े बुजुर्ग राज्य की उपद्रवी स्थिति और अराजक व्यवस्था से ऊबकर आखिरकार तेनाली रमन की शरण में आए । उन्होंने तेनाली रामू से नये और गैर अनुभवी मुख्यमंत्री से राज्य को छुटकारा दिलाने का उपाय करने को कहा । तेनाली राम ने उन लोगों को आश्वासन दिया , ” मैं जल्दी ही कोई ऐसा उपाय निकालता है जिससे हमारे राज्य को इस नये और गैर अनुभवी मुख्यमंत्री से छुटकारा जल्द से जल्द मिल जाए । कुछ सप्ताह बीत गये । एक दिन तेनाली राम ने राजा से निवेदन किया कि वह अपनी रानियों और अपने कुछ दरबारियों के साथ उसके घर आएँ और दोपहर में भोजन करने का आनन्द लें । इस बीच में उसे एक अच्छा बढ़ई मिल गया था । उस बढ़ई को तेनाली राम ने दोपहर के भोज की व्यवस्था करने की जिम्मेदारी सौंप दी ।
The king and others . again and again .
Word meaning : Order ( n ) [ ऑर्डर ) = आदेश । Morsel ( n ) [ मॉर्शल ] = कौर ( भोजन का निवाला ) | Again and again ( phr ) [ अगेन एण्ड अगेन ] = बार – बार ।
नियत दिन , तेनाली राम के घर दोपहर के भोजन पर राजा अपनी रानियों और दरबारियों के साथ खाने पर बैठ गया । तेनालीराम के आदेश पर बढ़ई ने सभी को खाना परोसना शुरू कर दिया । जब उपस्थित मेहमानों के खाने का पहला कौर मुँह में डाला तो वे बार – बार पीने के लिए पानी माँगने लगे ।
Soon after tasting ….. this horrible food ? “
Word meaning : Tasting ( v ) [ टेस्टिंग ] = स्वाद लेना । Realised ( v ) [ रिअलाइज्ड = महसूस किया । Unbearably ( adv ) [ अनबीअरेबली ] = असह्य रूप से । Hot ( adj ) [ हॉट = ( यहाँ ) तीखा । Suffer ( v ) [ सफर ] = कष्ट सहना । Horrible ( adj ) [ हॉरिबल ] = बहुत खराब .
जब राजा ने भोजन का स्वाद लिया तो उसे भी मालूम चला कि खाना बेहद खराब पकाया गया था और बहुत तीखा था । वह गुस्सा गया । ” तेनाली राम , किसने पकाया यह खाना ? तुम क्या चाहते हो कि हम सब इस भयंकर खान को खाकर मर जाएँ ? ”
In his usual humble . ……. for today’s feast . ”
Word meaning : Usual ( adj ) [ यूजुअल ] = सामान्य रूप से | Humble ( adj ) [ हम्बल ] नम्र , विनीत । Forgiveness ( n ) [ फॉरगिवनेस ] = क्षमा । Excellent ( adj ) ( एक्सेलेन्ट ] = शानदार ।
तेनाली राम ने अपने सामान्य रूप से विनीत तरीके से राजा को जवाब दिया , ” मुई माफी दी जाय महाराज । मुझे एक बहुत बढ़िया काम करने वाला बढ़ई मिला । उस शानदार बढ़ा को मैंने रसोइए के काम पर लगा दिया । उसी ने आज के भोज की तैयारी की है ।
” The king began ….. get this funny idea ?
Word meaning : Loudly ( adv ) [ लाउडली ] = जोरों से । Sense ( n ) [ सेन्स ] = समझ होना । Employed to ( v ) [ एम्प्लॉयड टू ] = काम पर लगना , नौकरी करना । Funny ( adj [ फनी ] = मजाकिया । Idea ( n ) [ आइडिया ] = विचार ।
अर्थ -राजा खूब जोरों से हँस पड़े और बोले , ” क्या तुम्हारी बुद्धि नष्ट हो गई है तेनाल राम ? शानदार बढ़ई है तो क्या हुआ ? उससे लकड़ी का काम कराओ तुम , भोजन क्यों पकवा उससे । तुम्हारी मति कैसे मारी गई ?
Tenali Raman asked ………..the chief minister .
Word meaning : Lord ( n ) लॉर्ड = महाराज | At once ( phr ) ( एट वन्स ) = अचानक | Realise ( v ) [ रिअलाइज ] = महसूस करना ।
तेनाली राम ने राजा से पूछा , ” महाराज ! अगर एक कलाकार मुख्यमंत्री बनाया जा सकता है तो क्या एक बढ़ई को रसोईया नहीं बनाया जा सकता है ? ” अचानक राजा की समझ में बात आ गई । वह समझ गया कि जान – बूझकर तेनाली राम ने एक बढ़ई को रसोईया बनाया है वह एक कलाकार को मुख्य मंत्री बनाने की अपनी गलती का अहसास कर सके ।
The king was saved ……. remain an artist !
Word meaning : Embarassment ( n ) [ एम्बरासमेन्ट ] = अप्रिय स्थिति । Post ( n ) [ पोस्ट ] = पद | Awkward ( adj ) [ ऑकवड ] = अप्रिय , खराब | Incident ( n ) [ इन्सिडेन्ट ] = घटना । Resigned ( v ) [ रिजाइन्ड ] = त्यागपत्र दे दिया । Remain ( v ) [ रिमेन ] = बने रहना । Artist ( n ) [ आर्टिस्ट ] = कलाकार ।
सारी बातें सुनकर कलाकार राजा वर्मा ने स्वयं ही मुख्यमंत्री के पद से त्यागपत्र दे दिया और राजा उसे स्वयं हटाने से उत्पन्न होने वाली अप्रिय स्थिति से बच गया । राजा वर्मा को तेनाली राम के यहाँ घटित होने वाली अप्रिय स्थिति का पता चल गया था । उसे भी अपनी गलती का अहसास हो गया था । इसलिए उसने स्वयं ही अपने पद से इस्तीफा दे दिया था । कुछ समय बीत गया तो तेनाली राम को कलाकार राजा वर्मा ने बताया कि दरअसल अब वह मात्र कलाकार बने रहने में ज्यादा खुशी महसूस कर रहा है ।
King Kirshna Dev Raya was fond of fine arts . He was a patronage of poets and scholars . Once , an artist Raja Varma made his live portrait . Being pleased with his art , Krishna Dev Raya made him the chief minister of his state .
Raja Varma had no idea of administration . People became unhappy . They approached Tenali Raman to get rid of the new and inept chief minister . Tenali Raman assured them .
After a few weeks , on the invitation of Tenali Raman , the king came to eat lunch at Tenali’s house with his queens and some courtiers . The food was terri bly hot . The king got angry Tenali Raman told the king that he had met an excellent carpenter and had put him on the job to cook lunch for the feast .
The king mocked Tenali for making a carpenter , a cook . Then , Tenali Raman told politely to the king — ” If an artist can become a chief minister , can’t a carpenter become a cook ? ”
The king realised his mistake . Raja Varma came to know what had hap pened in Tenali’s house . He resigned from the post . Later , he told Tenali Raman that he was happy to remain an artist !
राजा कृष्णदेव राय कला प्रेमी थे और कवियों व कलाकारों को खूब मदद दिया करते थे । एक बार , एक चित्रकार राजा वर्मा ने उनकी शानदार तस्वीर बना दी । उसकी कला से खुश होकर राजा ने उसे राज्य का मुख्यमंत्री बना दिया ।
राजा वर्मा को तो शासन के बारे में कुछ भी जानकारी थी नहीं । लोग उससे नाखुश रहने लगे । वे नये और गैरअनुभवी मुख्यमंत्री से राज्य को छुटकारा दिलाने के लिए कुछ उपाय करने का निवेदन लेकर तेनाली राम के पास आये । तेनाली राम ने उन्हें आश्वस्त किया कि वह इस समस्या का समाधान जल्द ही निकाल लेगा ।
कुछ सप्ताह के बाद , तेनाली राम के निमंत्रण पर , राजा अपनी रानियों और कुछ दरबारियों के साथ तेनाली राम के घर पर दोपहर का भोजन खाने के लिए आए । खाना बहुत ही तीखा बना था । राजा गुस्सा हो गया ।
तेनाली राम ने राजा को बताया कि उसे एक बहुत ही शानदार बढ़ई मिला जिसे उसने रसोईए की नौकरी पर लगा दिया और खाना उसी ने बनाया है ।
राजा ने हँसकर तेनाली राम का मजाक उड़ाया कि उसने एक बढ़ई को रसोईया बना दिया तब तेनाली राम ने बड़े विनीत होकर राजा से कहा , ” यदि एक कलाकार मुख्यमंत्री बन सकता है तो एक बढ़ई , रसोईया क्यों नहीं बन सकता ?
” राजा को अपनी गलती का अहसास हो गया । कलाकार राजा वर्मा को तेनाली राम के घर में घटित घटना की जानकारी हुई । उसने अपने पद से इस्तीफा दे दिया । बाद में , उसने तेनाली राम से कहा कि वह फिर से मात्र कलाकार बनकर बड़ा ही खुश है ।
Have you ever met or seen a person who may be excelent in certain things , but is asked to do things in which he / she has no experience ? Ho did he / she perform ? Were you amused / annoyed to see his / her performanc Tell your classmates the lesson that you learnt from this experience .
Ans . Yes , my father is excellent in teaching . He is a teacher in a school . H has no experience of cooking . Once , my mother was sick . My father starte cooking and spoiling things . We were amused to see his bad performance i cooking .
B.1 . THINK AND TELL
Q.1 . Why did the king make Raja Verma the chief minister ?
Ans . The king was impressed by his art . So he made him the chief ministe of his state .
Q. 2. Whom did the elders approach to get rid of the chief minister .
Ans . The elders approached to Tenali Raman .
Q. 3. Why did Tenali Raman appoint a carpenter as a cook ?
Ans . To realise the king his mistake , to appoint an artist as chief minister.
Q. 4. When did the king realise his mistake ?
Ans . When the king ate badly cooked food by a carpenter he realised hi mistake .
B.2 . THINK AND WRITE
B.2.1 Write ‘ T ‘ for true and ‘ F ‘ for false statement .
1. The king was fond of games .
2. Tenali Raman was a wise man .
3 . The carpenter made very delicious food for the guests .
4. Only the king and the queen were invited for lunch .
5 . All the guests ate the dishes with much interest ..
Ans . 1. ( F ) . 2. ( T ) , 3. ( F ) , 4. ( F ) , 5. ( F ) .
B.2.2 . The following sentences of this story are in order . Arrange them in proper order.
( 1 ) The king was very pleased with the artist when his portrait was ready .
( 2 ) The king rewarded Raja Varma with the chief ministership .
( 3 ) Apart from this Raja Varma drew images of famous character from Puranas , men and women .
( 4 ) Krishna Deva Raya was known for his patronage of poets , scholars and fine arts .
( 5 ) Overwhelmed by joy Krishna Deva Raya called the artist and asked him what he wanted .
( 6 ) He invited a famous artist to draw a portrait .
Ans . ( 1 ) Krishna Deva Raya was known for his patronage of poets , schol ars and fine arts .
( 2 ) He invited a famous artist to draw a portrait .
( 3 ) The king was very pleased with the artist when his portrait was ready . ( 4 ) Apart from this Raja Varma drew images of famous character from Puranas , men and women .
( 5 ) Overwhelmed by joy Krishna Deva Raya called the artist and asked him what he wanted .
( 6 ) The king rewarded Raja Varma with the Chief ministership .
B.2.3 . Answer the following in about 30 words :
Q. 1. What was Krishna Deva Raya known for ?
Ans . The king Krishna Deva Raya was fond of fine arts . He was widely known for his patronage of poets and scholars .
Q. 2. Why was the king very pleased with the artist when he saw his portrait ?
Ans . The artist Raja Verma had made an excellent portrait of the king . The portrait looked very alive . So , the king was very pleased with the artist when he saw his portrait .
Q. 3. Who rewarded Raja Varma and how ?
Ans . The king rewarded Raja Varma for making his live portrait . As a re ward he made him the Chief Minister of his state .
Q.4 . How was the food cooked by the carpenter ?
Ans . The cook had prepared very bad food . The food was very hot and spicy .
B.2.4 Answer the following questions in about 70 words .
Q.1 . What does the title ” Measure and Measure ” mean ? Do you like the title ? Give reasons in support of your answer .
Ans . I think that the title ‘ Measure for Measure ‘ means to do as alike as one does . I do like the title . If Tenali Raman hadn’t presented the same example before the king as he had done , the king would not be able to realise his mistake .
Q. 2. Did Raja Varma really feel happy to remain an artist ? Give reason for your answer .
Ans . Raja Varma felt very happy to remain only an artist . The reason for the statement is that at last , he had self said to Tenali Raman that he was happy to be once more only an artist . Q. 3. What made the people unhappy with Raja Varma’s administra tion ? List them and also write what they wanted the king to do .
Ans . Raja Varma was no doubt a good artist but proved to be a bad admin istrator . He had no experience of the job of an administrator . His bad decisions and bad management put the state into disorder . The people wanted the king to remove the unexpierenced and inept chief minister from his port .
Q. 4. Could Raja Varma , your opinion , have grown into a good administrator ? Give reasons .
Ans . Yes , Raja Varma could have grown into a good administrator . If he had got some good advisors to help him for the purpose .
Q. 5. What was wrong with the king rewarding Raja Varma as the chief minister ? Give reasons in support of your answer .
Ans . Yes , the king was wrong in rewarding the artist Raja Verma as the chief minister . Experience is needed for any job . Raja Varma had no experience in this regard . So , he should not have been rewarded with the Chief Ministership ,
C. WORD STUDY
C.1 . Rearrange the letters in following groups to make meaningful words . One has been done for you .
Pypah – happy
sitrat , pencarter , siminter , nemow , leepop .
C.2 . Correct the spellings of the following words :
Equaly , overwhalmed , inapt , majastry , resined
Incorrect spelling— Correct spelling Equaly ————-Equally Overwhalmed ——Overwhelmed
In pat ————–Inept Majasty Majesty————- Resined
C.3 . Look at the following words from the story :
disorder , ‘ unhappy’
Words ‘ disorder ‘ and ‘ unhappy ‘ , begin with the prefixes ‘ dis- ‘ and ‘ un- ‘ . In English prefixes ‘ dis- ‘ , ‘ un ‘ , ‘ in- ‘ ‘ it ‘ , ‘ im- ‘ , and ‘ mis- are used to make words which just the opposite of the actual word ( antonyms ) .
Write the antonym of the following words by adding appropriate pre fixes before them :
literate , measurable , mobile , satisfy . relevant manage , pleasant , organize , eligible , regular
Words — Antonyms ( opposite words ) Literate——- Illiterate
C.4 . Match the words given under ‘ A ‘ with their meanings given under
‘ B ‘ . One has been done for you .
[ 1. image ( e ) picture ] A
1. image———— ( a ) fault finding 2. decision———– ( b ) lavish
3. brilliant————- ( c ) event
4. complaint——- ( d ) unacceptable 5. incident&——— ( e ) picture
6. unbearable——–( f ) judgement
7. generous —–( g ) bright , excellent
A ( word ) B ( meaning )
1. Image —–( e ) Picture
2. Decision—- ( f ) Judgement
3 . Brilliant—– ( g ) Bright , excellent
4. Complaint –( a ) fault finding
5. Incident—– ( c ) Event
6. Unbearable —–( d ) Unaccetable 7. Generous——- ( b ) Lavish
D.1 . PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
We use the present perfect tense to show that an action or state started in the past and continues to the present ; e.g. Abhinav has been in Kolkata since 2001 .
Forms of the present perfect tense :
I / we / You / They + have + past participle
We have seen the Golghar .
I have received your letter .
Have you read this novel ?
He / She / It + has = past participle . She has bought a new watch .
My English has improved a lot . havelhas + adverb + past participle .
I have never eaten Dosa .
She has always had a bicycle .
The difference between the simple present and the present perfect is that the simple present refers only to the present time , but the present perfect con nects the past to the present ( usually with for , since , always , never , etc. ) .
Simple present ——-Present perfect I love my school .–I have always loved
I don’t like potatoes .– I have never
I am in Patna now .— I have been in
Patna for three years . Ashu has a car. — Ashu has had a car
In many situations , with a present time expression ( today , this week , etc. ) we may use either the present perfect or the simple past .
For example :
1. ( a ) Ankit has eaten four mangoes today .
( b ) Ankit ate four mangoes today .
2. ( a ) We have learned five new words today .
( b ) We learned five new words today .
3. ( a ) Ani has been absent twice this month .
( b ) Ani was absent four times last month .
In sentences 1 ( a ) and 2 ( a ) , the number may not be final . In sentences 1 ( b ) and 2 ( b ) , the number may be final . In sentence 3 ( a ) , the month is not finished . There is a possibility that Ani may be absent more times this month . In sen . tence 3 ( b ) , last month is finished and the number four is final .
1. Abhinav has been in Kolkata since 2001 . I haved lived in Bihar since 1990 . He has always loved his school . Anita has been a bank manager for three years .
2. Rashmi has written three poems today . Paras has had two interviews this month . So far , she hasn’t found a job . Aslam has worked in several colleges . How much money have you spent on train tickets so far ?
3. I have received a beautiful whatch from my uncle . He hasn’t made his decision yet . Amit has studied Urdu , and he speaks it well . I have never liked hot weather .Explanation The action started in the past and continues to the present .
1. The action repeats during a pe riod of time that started in the past and continues to the present .
2.We use time periods like today , this month , this week , so far , up to now etc. We can also use a lot of , several , many or a num ber of two show reptition from past to present . We can ask a question about repetition with how many and how much .
The action occurred at an indefi nite time in the past . It still has importance to a present situation .
1.1 . Fill in the blanks with the missing word ( not every sentence needs a word ) . Example :
Anwesha has been in Delhi for two years .
1 . Have you ………….. Aamir Khan’s new movie ?
2 . I have …………. many poems .
3 . She …………. been sick ………….. Monday .
4. Ayesha and Anwesha …………. known each other for many years , 5 . … the train …………. at the platform ?
1. seen , 2. read , 3. has , since , 4. have been , 5. has , arrived .
D.1.2 . Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets to form the present perfect tense .
Example : Saumya has got ( get ) a letter from her mother .
1. Anu ………… ( send ) a gift to her friend .
2. We ……….. ( see ) Tajmahal .
3. I ……….. ( read ) your letter .
4. Namita ………… ( never , work ) as a driver .
5. Alok …………. ( recently , pass ) from college .
6. ………… ( teach ) in many schools .
1. has sent , 2. have seen , 3. have read , 4. has never worked , 5. has recetantly passed , 6. have teached .
D.1.3 . Fill in the blanks with the present perfect or simple past to complete each dialogue .
Example : A. Have you ever studied Urdu ?
B. Yes , I studied Urdu in high school . A. I like Urdu a lot . Do you ?
B. No , I never studied Urdu .
1 . A. Have you ever ………… to Sikkim ?
B. No , I never have . But I would like to go there some day .
A …………. you ever …………. to Delhi ? B. Yes I …………. there two year ago .
2. A. Have you ever broken your leg or arm ?
B. Yes , I …………. my arm when I was ten years old . I was climbing a tree when I …………. ( fail . ) .
C. Which arm ………….. you ………… ! D. I broke my left arm .
3. A …………. you ever …… an English movie ?
B. No , I haven’t But I ………….. seen many Bengali movies .
C. I …………. never ……. a Bengali movie.
4. A. …………. you ever …………. to the district library ?
B. Yes , I ……. gone there many times . Last week I ………. tehre on Saturday and checked out a novel by Tagore . I have never ………. Tagore’s book in English .
C. …… you ever …………. his books in translation ?
D. Yes , In high school I. ……. two of his novels in Hindi .
E .5. A …………. your parents ever come here to visit you ?
B. No , they never ………… But last year my brother ………. to visit for a week.
Ans . 1. A Have you ever been to Sikkim .
B. No , I never have . But I would like to go there some day .
A. Have you ever been to Delhi ?
B. Yes , I have been there two years ago .
2. A. Have you ever broken your leg or arm ?
B. Yes , I broke my arm when I was ten years old . I was climbing a free when I fell down .
C. Which arm did you break ?
D. I broke my left arm .
3. A. Have you ever seen an English movie ?
B. No , I haven’t . But I have seen many Bengali movies .
C. I have never seen a Bengali movie . 4. A. Have you ever gone to the district library ?
B. Yes , I have gone there many times . Last week I had been there on Saturday and checked out a novel by Tagore . I have never read Tagore’s book in English .
C. Have you ever read his books in translation ?
D. Yes , In high school I read two of his novels in Hindi .
5. A. Have your parents ever come here to visit you ?
B. No , they never came . But last year my brother came to visit me for a week .
D.2 . THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
The past perfect is used to show the relationship of one past event to a later past event or time . The past perfect tense is formed with had + past participle ; e.g. ,
He had travelled by ship before .
The winter had been very mild .
The radio had been invented in 1912 .
The past perfect continuous is formed with had + been + verb – ing ; e.g
He had been travelling for three days . The children had been studying English for six years .
Comparative statement and question word order :
STATEMENT : The train had left the station .
YES / NO QUESTION : Had the train left the station ?
WH – QUESTION : When had the train left the station ?
past <—————> future
” The Titanic went down
A rescue ship arrived.
By the time the rescue ship arrived , the Titanic had already gone down . By 1912 , the Wright brothers had already invented the aeroplane . In 1912 , the Titanic had just been built .
When people got on the lifeboats , the Rescue ship hadn’t arrived yet . When the rescue ship arrived , many passengers had already died .
There was a lot of ice in the water because the previous winter had been unusually mild .
Many passengers didn’t realise that the ship had hit an iceberg .
The passengers in third class were emigrants who had left behind their old way of life .
The Titanic was the most magnificent ship that had never been built .
Many migrants on the Titanic had never left their countries before 1912 .
The ship had been at sea for five days when it hit an iceberg .
Ans. Use of the past perfect :-
To show that something happened before a specific time , date or event .
To show something happened or didn’t happen before the verb in the When clause .
After because , to show a prior reason .
In a noun clause , when the main verb is past .
In a who / that / which clause , to how a prior action .
We sometimes use the past perfect with a superlative form .
With never …… before , in relation to a past time ( in this case , 1912 ) .
With for , to show the duration of an earlier past action .
1 . yet , already , just for + time period , and never …… before are often used with the past perfect to help show the time relationship of one past time or event to another .
2. the past perfect can be used with before and after , but it is not necessary because the time relationship is clear , e.g. , Before the Titanic hit the iceberg , the captain tried to turn the ship around . OR Before the Titanic hit the iceberg , the captain had tried to turn the ship around .
3. Either the past perfect or the simple past can be used with because when the cause and result are close in time . However , if the cause and result are not close in time , usually the past perfect is used for the cause , e.g. , I couldn’t call you because I ( had ) lost your phone number . There were not enough lifeboats because several had been removed .
The past perfect is used when we look back from a time in the past . The present perfect is used when we look back BA from the present time .
D.2.1 . Fill in the blanks with the past perfect of the verb in brackets . Example : Poor emigrants on the ship had left ( leave ) behind a way of life.
a . By 1912 , the Wright brothers had ………. ( already , made ) a succes ful flight .
b . The Titanic had …………. ( originally , have ) 32 lifeboats .
c . The captain of the Titanic didn’t pay attention to the warnings **** ……… ( receive ) .
d . Passengers heard a noise but didn’t understand what ……….. ( happen)
e . By 1912. the radio …………. ( passive : already , invent ) .
f . I failed the test because I …………. ( be ) absent for two weeks .
g . The story of the Titanic was not new to me because I ………… ( se the movie .
h . I didn’t recognise her because she …………. ( cut ) her hair .
Ans . ( a ) already made ,
( b ) originally ,
( c ) had received ,
( d ) had happene
( e ) had been already invented ,
( f ) had been absent ,
( g ) had seen ,
( h ) had cut .
D.2.2 . The sentence below tell you which action happened first . Conne these sentences with by the time and already .
First : My brother and sister ate lunch . Second : I came home from school .
By the time I came home from school , my brother and sister had alrea eaten lunch .
1. First : Anu saw the movie .
Second : Her brother saw the movie .
2. First : He fell asleep on the sofa . Second : The TV serial was over .
3. First : The building burned down . Second . The first fighters arrived .
4. First : I saw the movie Titanic . Second : I read about the Titanic in my textbook .
1. By the time Anu saw the movie , her brother had already seen the movie.
2. By the time he fell asleep on the sofa the TV serial had already be Over .
3. By the time the fire fighters arrived the building had already be burned down .
4. By the time I saw the movie Titanic I had already read about Titanic in my text book .
( iii ) Combine the two sentences . Example : First : They made a big mistake .
Second : They realised it later .
They realised that they had made a big mistake .
1. First : I left my umbrella at school . Second : I realised this later ,
2. First : You studied Urdu when you were in Hyderabad .
Second : I didn’t know this .
3 . First : You lived in Nepal when you were a child .
Second : I didn’t know this .
1 . I realised that I had left my Umbrella at school .
2. I didn’t knew that you had studied Urdu when you were in Hyderabad .
3. I didn’t knew that you lived in Nepal when you were a child .
( iv ) Tell if the following had already happened yet when you came to this school .
Example : finish secondary examination .
When I came to this school . I had already finished secondary examination .
When I came to this school . I hadn’t finished secondary examination yet .
1. buy an English dictionary .
2. study English .
3. know a lot about this school .
Ans . 1. When I came to this school , I had already bought an English dictionary .
When I came to this school . I hadn’t bought an English dictionary .
2. When I came to this school , I had already studied English .
OR When I came to this school , I hadn’t studied English .
3. When I came to this school , I had already known a lot about this school .
When I came to this school , I hadn’t known a lot about this school .
D. LET’S TALK
Work in groups
Q. Discuss why the carpenter made a mess of the food he cooked .
Ans . Rohan : The carpenter did not know cooking .
Juli : To be a good carpenter is one thing and to be a good cook is another thing ,
Anju : Yes , you both are right . The carpenter did not know cooking and made a mess of the food he cooked .
Translate the following passage into English .
पुण्यजीत एक कला प्रेमी राजा थे । वे विद्वानों एवं कवियों का आदर करते थे । वे अपनी उदारता के लिए प्रसिद्ध थे । वे उदारता में कभी – कभी भूलकर बैठते थे । एक बार उन्होंने एक गीतकार को मंत्री बना दिया । गीतकार एक अच्छा प्रशासक नहीं हो सका । लोग दु : खी हो गये । बाद में राजा को भी अपनी भूल का एहसास हुआ । अत : हमें सोच – समझकर निर्णय लेना चाहिए ।
Punyajeet was an art – lover king . He used to respect the scholars and poets . He was famous for his kindness . Due to his kind behaviour , sometimes he used to do mistakes . Once , he had appointed a singer as a minister . The singer couldn’t be a good administrator . People became unhappy . Later , the king too realised his mistake . So , we shoulu take any of our decision attentively .
Q. Write a short paragraph on the importance of wisdom .
Ans . Importance of Wisdom
Wisdom is a great quality . Only human beings possess this quality . The one who possess wisdom is praised by one and all . Tenali Raman had got wis dom . Within him . So , only he could make the king realise his mistake . In our world , many people are honoured even after many years of their death . We praise them , honour them for their wisdom .
Read one story of Tenali Rama’s or , Birbal’s or Mulla Nasiruddin’s wisdom and humour and tell it to the class .
BIRBAL OUT WITS THE CHEAT In Emperor Akbar’s court , there was a wise minister . His name was Birbal . Akbar trusted Birbal to solve any of the state’s problem . Once a villager came to the emperor’s court . He compained that he had sold his well to a villager Gopal . But Gopal didn’t pay him for the water of the well .
The village asked for justice . He demanded that Gopal should pay for wa ter . Birbal applied his wit . He knew that the villager was a cheat . He said to the villager that since his water was in Gopal’s well , so he should pay to Gopal for the water . The villager became afraid for paying . He asked the emperor to for give him . Thus , Birbal applied his wit and outwitted the cheater villager .
( Tell this story to the class yourself )