bihar board 10 english notes
class – 10
subject – english
lesson 4 – WHAT IS WRONG WITH INDIAN FILMS
WHAT IS WRONG WITH INDIAN FILMS
The Author : Satyajit Ray is a renowned name of the film industry of today. He has earned international fame for his contribution to the Indian Cinema as a film producer and director. He was also a good story Writer , a book designer and an ‘ illustrater , some of his landmark films are ‘ Pather panclhai ‘, ‘ Aprajito ‘, ‘ Charulate’ and ‘ Shatranji ke Khiladi’. While all the earlier named films were highly acclaimed by the public. He press and film critic. Oxford university conferred upon him the honorary degree for his exemplary contribution to the film production.
This essay has been taken from his book ‘ Our films Their films ‘ in which a comparative study has been done between the films produced in Hollywood with that of Indian films.
Satyajit Ray was critical about the quality of films produced in India.
Summary In English : The writer has started his essay saying that Cinema of today has developed from a toy cinema of almost a century back. The cinema box was a mechanical operated in which still photographs were seen through a glass which used to magnify the picture. Today the cinema has taken the ferm of an art which combines poetry, music, painting, drama, and a number of other art forms combined together in one. Science has helped in making cinema popular amongst masses.
In India Cinema came in 1907 and the first feature film was produced in 1913. It turned into a big business in 1920.
It is Known fact that India is the second largest producer of films after Hollywood but it is an established fact too that we do not produce quality films. The writer puts question as why Indian films are not shown abroad ? The writer gives a reply by saying that perhaps we are shame of our own films and we have no courage to show that out of our country.
The writer says that there has get been no film which could be praised on all counts. The reasons may be so many and all the persons connected with making of film will blame each other giving some exercise. The writer feels that in India there was no fundamental concept which could bring a good coematic production at that time. The dramatic pattern, system was generally misunder stood. In producing a cinema in our country during those days was a process in which movement was equated with action and action with melodrama.
Every passing phase of American Cinema had its effect on Indian film. The success stories of Hollywood films were adopted in Indian production with ease. If the story was of Indian origin with Indian background, the music used to Western one. The writer says that the average American film is a bad model. If an American film is trying to depict life or some shades of American or Western life it can not watch or have a ture match with the Indian way life. And again the technical excellence of Hollywood production can not be achieved under the Indian Conditions. The Indian Cinema needs more imagination and more integrity rather than more brightness or technical excellence. What Indian Cinema really needs is a picture at the Indian way of life, a style and idiom which is representative of India and Indian.
it should show that the basic aspect of Indian life in the from of dress and manners, habit and speech, background and freeground. It should have good blending of Indian perspective of life in their natural appearance.
In the last 4 paragraphs the great Indian Cinema nestro has suggested some measures for making the Indian Cinema nestro has simplicity of style, content and treatment of story. He feels that the present practice and scenerio in this field is just the opposite. The productions are done without proper planning. The shooting are mostly done indoors, when India is a country of colourful and attractive land scapes which may suit the demand of the story.
The writer also acknowledges the fact that there are few new productions who have shown change with enlightened approach. He has given the example of a film entitled ‘ Dharati ke Lal ‘ produced by IPTA . The production has been done with technical competence with simple theme treated in style . It show a grasp of filmi movement with respect to tradition.
The writer feels that the raw material of cinema is life in all its shades. A country like ours has put so much life in our music , Paintings and other form of arts. How it is that it has failed to inspire our films ?
One has to keep his eyes and ears open to get proper result.
पाठ का सारांश
लेखक अपने निबंध का प्रारंभ इस कथन के साथ करता है कि आज के सिनेमा की शुरुआत प्राय: सौ वर्ष एक लघु आकार में हुआ था जिसे हम ‘ हाॅट सिनेमा ‘ या खिलौना कह सकते हैं। आज के सिनेमा ने एक कलाकृति का रूप ग्रहण कर लिया है जिसमें काव्य है, संगीत है, नाटक है, चित्रकारी है और एक कलाकृति का रूप भी संयोग है। कुछ अन्य कलाओं का मेल भी इसमें है। विज्ञान ने इस कला को जन – जन तक पहुंचाने में मदद की है।
भारत में सिनेमा का आगमन वर्ष 1907 में हुआ और पहले फीचर फिल्म का निर्माण सन् 1931 में हुआ। 1920 तक आते-आते इसने एक बड़े व्यवसाय का रूप ग्रहण कर लिया।
इस बात को अस्वीकार नहीं किया जा सकता कि ‘ हाॅलीवुड ‘ के बाद भारत में फिल्मों का निर्माण सबसे अधिक होता है लेकिन इस बात में भी उतनी ही सच्चाई है की भारत में उत्तम फिल्मों का का निर्माण नहीं होता है। लेखक कहता है कि अभि तक भारत में कोई भी ऐसी फिल्म नहीं बनी जिसकी सलाहना सभी दृष्टियों से की जाय। कारण अनेक हो सकते हैं और फिल्म निर्माण से जुड़े लोगों से पूछा जाय तो वे एक-दूसरे पर दोषारोपण करेंगे । लेखक कहता है कि उस समय फिल्म निर्माण का कारण बनता है। नाट्यशिल्प की समझ हममें कम थी या नहीं थी। उस काल में फिल्म निर्माण के क्रम में हम गति को अभिनय मान लेते थे और अभिनय को भावनात्मक नाटक की संज्ञा देते थे।
अमेरिका सिनेमा के क्षेत्र में होने वाले सभी बदलावों , परिवर्तन का प्रभाव भारतीय फिल्म निर्माण पर पड़ा। अगर कहानी का आधार भारतीय परिवेश हुआ या भारतीय पृष्ठभूमि के साथ किसी फिल्म का निर्माण किया गया तो उसमें पाश्चाऊ संगीत का समावेश अवश्य किया गया। लेखक कहता है कि आम अंग्रेजी फिल्में किसी भी दृष्टि से हमारे लिये प्रतिमान नहीं बन सकती। अगर कोई अमेरिकी फिल्म पाश्चात्य जीवन शैली को अपनी फिल्म का आधार बनाती है तो फिर उसे हमारे लिए ग्रहण करना कहाँ तक उचित माना जायेगा ? और फिर अमेरिकी तकनीकी दक्षता का हम किसी प्रकार मुकाबला नहीं कर सकते। भारतीय सिनेमा में हम उच्च कल्पना भारतीयता के समावेश की अपेक्षा रखते हैं। तकनीकी श्रेष्टता या चमक के प्रर्दशन की उतनी आवश्यकता हमारे लिये नहीं है।
अपने निबंध के अंतिम चार पाराग्राफ में विद्वान लेखक ने भारतीय फिल्मों की सफलता के लिए कुछ महत्त्वपूर्ण सुझाव दिये हैं। उनके अनुसार सरलता और सहजता हमारी फिल्मों के निर्माण का आधार बनना चाहिए । उनके अनुसार भारत में बनी फिल्में इन आदर्शों पर खड़ी नहीं उतरती । लेखक कहता है कि बिना समुचित योजना बनाए जिसमें दृश्यांकन हेतु स्क्रिप्ट तैयार नहीं होते, प्लाॅट को तोड़ – मोड़कर परोसने की आदत, दिशाहीन, संगत तथा संगीत का बेवजगह इस्तेमाल हमारे देश में फिल्म निर्माण के विशेष गुण हैं। भारतीय फिल्मों का छायांकन ज्यादातर ‘ इनडोर ‘ किया जाता है जबकि भारत भूमि की प्राकृतिक छटा लुभावनी है जिसका सदुपयोग खुलकर फिल्मीकरण में बिना किसी असुविधा के किया जा सकता है।
लेखक इस बात से इंकार नहीं करते कि भारत में इधर इस क्षेत्र में कुछ प्रयोग हुये हैं और वे सराहनीय प्रयोग कहे जा सकते हैं। इस दृष्टि से उन्होंने ‘ धरती के लाल ‘ शीर्षक से ‘ इप्टा ‘ द्वारा प्रस्तुत फिल्म का उदाहरण दिया है। फिल्म की कथा सहज है और शैली आकर्षक । इसी प्रकार उदयशंकर द्वारा निर्देशित फिल्म ‘ कल्पना ‘ में कुछ अच्छे प्रयोग किये गये हैं। परम्पराओं को महत्त्व देते हुये फिल्म को गति देना एक अनूठा प्रयोग है। हमारे देश में जीवन की विविधताओं के दर्शन होते हैं — हमारे संगीत जीवन्त हैं, पेंटिंग्स में विविधता है, तरह-तरह की कलाओं को बारीकियाँ हमारे फिल्मों के लिए प्रेरक और सहज आधार बन सकती हैं। हमें अपनी आँखों और कान खुले रखने होंगे — उसका फल हमें अवश्य मिलेगा ।
GLOSSARY AND NOTES
Phenomenon (noun): घटना। Potent(adj): शक्तिशाली, बलवान। Versatile (adj): बहुआयामी। Architecture (noun): वास्तुकला। Potential (adj): आन्तरिक शक्ति। Acclaimed (verb): प्रशंसित। Maturity (Adj): परिपक्वता। Mysterious (Adj): आश्चर्यजनक। Melodrama (noun): भावपूर्ण नाटक। Improvisation (adj): नाट्य संगीत। Hall mark (noun): प्रतीक चिह्न। Clithas (noun): विचार , अभिव्यक्ति । Irrepressible (Adj): नियंत्रित । Gloss (adj): सतह की चमक। Replate(adj): भरपूर, परिपूर्ण। Inconsistencies (noun): विसंगति। Landscape (noun): प्राकृतिक सुषमा। Evolution (noun): विकास की प्रक्रिया। Analogy(noun): एकरुपता।
A. Work in small groups and discuss the following :
Q.1. Have you seen any films recently ?
Ans. Yes, I have seen a film recently in a picture place. The name of the film was Bagwan.
2. Tell the name of any film which you like most. Point out is salient features.
B.1.1. Write ‘ T ‘ for true and ‘ F’ for false statement.
1. The cinema commands the respect according to any other form of creative express. [T] 2. The cinema doesn’t combine the cold logic of science. [F] 3. Film production in India is quantitatively second only to Hollywood. [T] 4. India has achieved what other countries have achieved. [F] 5. Indian music is largely improvisation . [T] B.1.2. Study the lesson carefully and complete the following sentences on the basis of byuy toyour reading.
1. By the twenties it had reached the status of lie business.
2. Why our film were not show abroad.
3. The technician will flame the tools.
4. The first features was shot in 1913.
5. The analogy with music failed in our case.
B.1.3. Answer the following questions very briefly :
Q.1. Who has written this essay ?
Ans. The renowned film director and producer Satyajit Ray has written this essay.
Q.2. Which is the most potent and versatile art from.
Ans. Cinema is the most potent and versatile art from.
Q.3. were Indian films shown abroad a few decades age ?
Ans. No, Indian films were not shown abroad few decades age. The trend has started only recently.
Q.4. When was the first short produced ?
Ans. The first short was produced 1907.
B.2.1. Complete the following sentences on the basics of the unit you have studied.
1. Stories have been written based on Hollywood successes.
2. After all we do passes the primary tools of film making.
3. It should be realized that the average American film is a bad model.
4. The majority of our films are replate.
5. But the truly Indian film should steer clear of such inconsistencies.
6. There have been rare glimpses of an enlightened approach in a handful of recent films.
B.2.2. Answer the Following questions briefly.
Q.1. Have average American films been a bad model ? Give one reason.
Ans. Because the American films depict way of life which is at variance with our own.
Q.2. Mention one thing/feature which Indian film needs.
Ans. The Indian Cinema needs more imagination and more integrity and not more gloss.
Q.3. Do Indian film makers pass the primary tools of film making ?
Ans. We do possess the primary tools of film making.
C.1. Long Answer Questions :
Q.1. What our cinema needs above everything is a style an idiom, a sort of iconography of cinema which would be uniquely and recognisably Indian”. How far this applies to Indian Cinema today? Discuss.
Ans. The Indian Cinema of today has undergone a massive change at least in the form of style and presentation. The viewers like and prefer reality Cinema more, compared to cinema totally based on unrealistic view of life. Some of the films produced with new thoughts, story depicting reality of life with characters coming from the lowest strate of socity has made a grand success.
The only thing which could not be avoided in the Indian films even today is that of music. The films without songs can’t complete in Box office. The songs make a land mark and make a film popular like the song composed by music Director A.R. Rahman in ‘Slum Dog Million ‘ air entitled ‘ Jai ho ‘ was highly acclaimed and was selected for ‘ Ocar ‘ International prize.
Q.2. Should Cinema be looked upon as a form of creative expression. Give reasons.
Ans. Cinema is a powerful media of communication. It has the power of bringing change in the socity and can create an atmosphere for the betterment of the country. There is no doubt that Cinema is a form of creative expression. There is demand of Creativity in writing the story for the film, the dialogue, the acting ,the cinematography, the designing of set, the out fit of the actors and actresses keeping in view the demand of the characters, the songs of the film including the music etc. There is a demand of Creativity in all the fields of film production including its editing and direction.
Q.3. Do you think Indian films have certain basic weakness ? Illustrate your answer citing examples citing examples from the films you have seen.
Ans. Yes, the basic weakness is that of immunization. We in India tend to immitate Hollywood films. The stories carry a reflection of American Cinema to the extent that even the American idioms and phrases are taken and preserved in our films invariably. For a change if the story is of story is of Indian origin, the treatment carries an impression of American Cinema. The most anguishing situation comes when Hindi songs are composed with Western music.
Of course a change has come since the end of the last century and more and more progressive films are being produced how.
Q.4. What is the most dominant influence on Indian films ?
Ans. The writer observes in his writing regarding the dominant influence of American Cinema on Indian films. He says that ” Almost every passing phase of the American Cinema has had its repurcussion on the Indian film. Stories have been written based on Hollywood successes and the cliteles preserved with care. Even where the story has been a genuinely Indian one, the background music has revealed an irresistible penehant for the jazz idiom.
Q.5. What aspects of American films do our films imitate ? Is it justified in our context ?
Ans. They are stories, music and the style of presentation which in no way reflect the Indian way of life. This is no way can be said to be justified. The writer says. ” What our cinema needs above everything else is a style, an idiom, a sort of icnography of cinema which would be uniquely and recognisably Indian.”
C.2. Group Discussion :
Discuss the following topics in groups or pair.
Q.1. Television programmes do a lot of harm to students. Give your views either for or against the statement.
Points : Infavour [ for ].
1. Television is an Audio Visual electronic medium has immense impact on society particulary in bringing Social change.
2. It has the potentiality of educating the masses.
3. The dissemination of knowledge can be done smoothly and quickly.
4. The information can be transmitted quickly to any corner of the land sea and air.
5. The students get benifitted through the telecast of formal and informal learning material. The National open university of our country named IGNOU broadcast lesson on different subjects from its FM Channel ‘ Gyanvari’.
Q.6. It enhances the knowledge of the students through various programmes on Science., Art and culture.
Points : Against :
1. The students get glued to the small available in their houses and ignore their studied.
2. Channels cany a number of programmes which are not useful to the students but the youth get attrached to those cheap programs.
3. The students try to imitate the style and make some of the actors as their role model.
4. The good values of life are ignored which adversely affects the mind and the thinking of youth of today.
5. The study time of the students are eaten away by the serials talecast during the prime study time of morning and night.
Q.2. ” Films are the mirrors of socity”.
Points : 1. It is rightly said that films are the mirrors of socity. The happenings around us are reflected in the films.
2. We can judge our society through creative writings of the time.
3. One can analyze the social change which has taken place in the country by seeing the films screened during last few decades.
C.3. Composition :
1. Write a letter to the Director of Doordarshan requesting him to give you opportunity to participate in the weekly T.V. programme which interest you very much Mention why you find yourself suitable for such a programmer.
Ans. A Letter
Patna — 800001
Sub: Request for enrolling my name as an artist of Dramatic Performance at your Kendra.
I am highly interested in taking part in the play, serials and other dramatic programmes telecast from your Kendra from time to time.
I have been taking part in the drama short plays etc. Since my school days. So I have developed a liking for such programmes and want to keep up my interest in this form of creative art.
I shall be highly obliged if you kindly give me an opportunity to prove my worth. I shall present myself on the date and time for a screen test when invited.
Hope to listen from you at the earliest,
Thanking you, Yours faithfully
My address :
Mr. Rajesh Ranjan
Harding Park, Patna — 800001
Q.2. Write your impression of a Hindi film which you have seen recently :
Ans. Recently I had a chance of seeming film in a local picture palace. The name of the film is ‘ Teen Patti ‘. The film had been produced under the direction of Lenna Yadav. Amitabh Bachan Ben Kingsley, R. Madhavan and Sharad Kapoor are in the main roles of the film. The film had been nicely produced with a novel theme.
Words Study :
D.1. Dictionary Use : Correct the following words.
Ex. 1. Incorrect Correct
Ex.2. Frame your own sentences using the following words :
1. Creation: The whole universe is the creation of God.
2. Potential : He has the potential of becoming an artist.
3. Solely: His is solely responsible for committing this wrong.
4. Queer : Ramu’s face and dress was wrong a queer pink in colour.
5. Gloss : There was gloss on that photograph.
6. Adequate : The mystery was never edequately explained.
7. Incredible: It was incredible to believe that Sonu has beaten Adarsh.
D.2. Read the lesson carefully and find out five sentences in which phrases have been used. Now use those phrases in sentences of your own.
1. A turn of the century para 1
2. Creative Expression para 2
3. Harmonious whole para13
4. Unlyrical situations para14
5. Enlightened approach para15
6. Fail to move para16
7. Keep his eyes open para16
1. The turn of century has been many changes in the world .
2. One has to show creative expression through his writings.
3. We should try to adopt a way of life which projects harmonious whole.
4. Unlyrical situations in life sometimes leads to chaos.
5. Enlightened approach brings harmony in life.
6. His logic failed to move to the judge in granding fail to the accused.
7. Keep your eyes open to make progress in any field.
E. GRAMMAR [Adverb clause of condition ] Exam. 1. Look at the following sentences.
If you get late, you will miss the train.
You will not succeed unless you work hard.
In examples given above ” if you get late” and ” Unless you work hard ” are conditions. So this clause is called Adverb clause of condition.
(i) If you make promises, you must keep it.
(ii) In case it rains, I shall not go out. Adverb clause of condition starts with if, unless, so long as, provided in case that etc.
Example 1. Now make five sentences using unless, provided, in case , so long as.
1. Unless: Unless you read, you can’t pass.
2. Provided: Provided you reach there in time in time, how can you get the train ?
3. In case: In case he works he will be rewarded properly.
4. So long as : so long as you here, you are safe.
Example 1.2 Fill in the blanks with ” should” or ” Ought to “.
1. We you ought to help our neighbours.
2. He should speak the truth.
3. Everybody should be good to his friends.
4. She should read this novel.
5. You ought to work for the welfare of the country.
Example. 1.3 Read the following sentences carefully.
1. You ought to go immediately.
2. She ought to apologize for her behaviour.
3. Do you think I should go ?
4. You should write a letter and find out when he is coming.
‘ Ought , is stronger and indicates moral obligation where as ‘should’ indicates a recommendation. It is used in giving or asking for advice.
1. He should sleep In time to get up early in the morning.
2. He should obey the orders of his teacher.
3. He should not waste time in playing.
4. One should pray the God for everything he has given.
5. Rahman should not waste time in playing.
6. You ought to take care of your parents.
7. He ought to feel sorry for this doing .
8. The students ought to respect their teachers.
9. The message ought to reach his father in time.
10. He ought to behave properly with his brother.
Example 1.4. Read the following sentences carefully:
One example is done for you.
Which was the first short or film produced ?
6. Which mysterious entity the producers will tell ?
7. Which fundamental concept was generally misunderstood ?
8. Did analogy with music failed in our case because Indian music is largely conveniantly.
9. Has the story of the Indian films been genuinely an indian one ?
10. Would it possible to achieve hallmark of the standard Hollywood films and their products ?
11. Do we possess the primary tools of film making ?
12. How does it appear that all the prevailing practices go against simplification ?
13. What are the factors which stand in the way of the evolution of a distinctive style in Indian Cinema ?
14. Which film of Uday Shankar shows a grasp of filmic movement and a respect for tradition ?
15. It is not incredible that a country has inspired so much painting and music and poetry should fail to move the film maker ?
F. ACTIVITIES :
Q.1. Prepare a list of such actors who have been given Dade Saheb Phalke Awards ?
Ans. Devika Rani, B. N. Sircar, Prithiviraj Kapoor, Pankaj Kumar Mallick, Durga Khote, Satyajit Ray, Lata Mangester , Majrooh Sultanpuri, B. Nagi Reddy.
Q.2. Prepare a list of such Indian films which give lesson of integrity patriotisms and example of human rights .
Ans. The films are : ‘ Jagriti’, ‘ Anand Meath ‘, Shaheed’ ‘ Do Ankhen Barah Hanth’. ‘ Sardar’, Ham Hindustani, ‘ Apharan ‘, ‘ Ganga JAL, ‘ Gandhi ‘, Upkar.
G. TRANSLATION :
Translate the following sentences into Hindi / your mother tongue.
1. India took up film production surprisingly early.
भारत में फिल्म निर्माण का कार्य आश्चर्यजनक रूप से बहुत पहले हुआ।
2. Why were our films not shown aboard ?
हमारे देश में निर्मित फिल्में विदेशियों में क्यों नहीं दिखायी जाती थीं ?
3. Let us face the truth.
हमें सच्चाई का सामना करना चाहिए ।
4. The technicians will blame the tools.
मकनीशियन वृंद उपयुक्त औजार की कमी का रोना रोयेंगे।
5. It should be realized that the average American film is a bad model.
हमें यह समझना चाहिए कि साधारण या आम अमेरिकी फिल्मों को हम अपना आदर्श नहीं मान सकते।
6. What our cinema needs ?
हमारी फिल्मों की आवश्यकताएँ क्या हैं ?
7. Let him do so.
उन्हें ऐसा करने दो।
8. He has only to keep his eyes open.
उन्हें केवल अपनी आँखें खुली रखनी चाहिए।