9th english

bseb class 9th english note | KATHMANDU

KATHMANDU

bseb class 9th english note

CLASS – 9

SUBJECT – ENGLISH

LESSON 7 – KATHMANDU

  KATHMANDU
                                      —Vikram Seth

Introduction : This piece entitled ‘ Kathmandu ‘ has been written by Vikram Seth who was born in Kolkata in the year 1952 and got his education at Oxford. The writer is a widely travelled person. He has compiled his experience of visiting China. Tibet and Nepal in a book named ‘ Heaven Lake ‘. This book won him a Thomas Cook Travel Book Award. This writing of Vikram Seth has been taken from his book ‘ Heaven lake ‘ This is the last lap of his visit after China and Tibet and the writer filed out to his home town after Kathmandu. This writing gives q vivid description of the Capital of Nepal know for its scenic beauty.

          SUMMARY IN ENGLISH

The writer stars by narrating that on arrival in the city he managed to get accomodation in a hotel in the central part of Kathmandu. He managed to sleep for the rest of that day in his room and the next morning he visits the two famous temples of Kathmandu. One is a Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva and the other is a Buddhist shrine named Baudhinath Stupa. The Buddhists regularly visit this shrine for worship and prayer.
The writer stars with his visit to Pashupatinath  temple. The writer describes that the whole atmosphere around the temple was that of febrile confusion, a confusing state which can make one sick at the first step itself. There were priests devotees, hawkers cows, monkey, pigeons, dogs  and between them the tourists who wanted to catch the scenes in their eyes. The worshippers were pushing and elbowing each other to reach near the presiding deity. The writer further narrates that  in between this confusion and male a princess of the royal house of Nepal arrives. Everyone bows and make way for her. A party of saffron clad westerners appear. They were refused entry into the temple as the policeman on guard was not convinced that they were Hindus as the right of entry was reserved for the caste Hindus only. A fight breaks out amongst two monkeys and they jump over a ‘  Shivlinga ‘ Ultimately they run away towords the holy Bagmati river which flows below down the temple. The writer describes the scenes on the bank of the river— corpse being burnt, washermen washing dirty clothes, children taking bath and suddenly somebody throwing flowers and leaves and old offerings into the river from a balcony. The holy river accepts everything without any resistance.
The writer takes the reader to the Buddhist shrine. The dome of the shrine is white  and is surrounded by a road. There is no noise, no crowds and the whole atmosphere is so calm and quiet. Small shops around sell silver jewellery, Tibetan Arts pieces, felt bags etc. In para 4 the writer describes about the busy streets, of Kathmandu with small shrines, fruit sellers, hawkers, shops selling cosmetics, chocolate, copper utensils, fruit sellers, flute seller, hawkers, shops selling cosmetics, chocolate, copper utensils and Nepalese antiques etc.
Suddenly the author is reminded about his return journey. He thought of going to Patna by train then sail up the Ganges past Benares to Allahabad then via Yamuna river to Agra and then to Delhi. But this was just loud thinking and he decided to go directly and reach home early as he was felling home sick. He enters into Nepal Airlines office and buys a ticket for a flight leaving Kathmandu tomorrow. Then he moves towards his hotel. On the way he finds a person selling flute. He had different types of flutes which he played one by one. In between he stops to sell one to a customer, but he has more interest in music than business. Perhaps this has been his life for years. The another has a fascination towards music specially the sound of a flute.The flute is an draw into the commonality of all mankind.
The another feels that on many occasions he returned home after a long tour but he never went into such details as the in Kathmandu. The sound of Bansuri still  vibrates through his ears.

             SUMMARY IN HINDI 

भूमिका :  काठमांडू शीर्षक इस आलेख के लेखक हैं श्री विक्रम सेठ । श्री  विक्रम सेठ का जन्म कलकत्ता में सन् 1952 में हुआ था और इनकी शिक्षा ऑक्सफोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय में हुई थी । श्री सेठ ने देश – विदेश का भ्रमण किया है और पर्यटन इनका शौक रहा है । चीन, तिब्बत एवं काठमांडू की यात्रा के अपने अनुभवों को इन्होंने ‘हेवन  लेक ‘ नामक अपनी पुस्तक में संकलित किया है। उनकी इस पुस्तक को ‘ टाँमस कुक ट्रैवल बुक ‘ पुरस्कार से पुरस्कृत किया गया है । यह रचना उसी पुस्तक का एक अंश है।
काठमांडू की यात्रा चीन और तिब्बत के बाद लेखक के अन्तिम पड़ाव की यात्रा है क्योंकि काठमांडू के बाद लेखक सीधा अपने गृह नगर को वापस जाता है।
काठमांडू नेपाल की राजधानी है। लेखक ने इसके प्राकृतिक सौंदर्य, सांस्कृतिक विरासत , नागरिक जन-जीवन का कोलाहल और प्रदुषित होता गंडक नदी का अत्यंत बारीकी से अध्ययन किया है।
सारांश : लेखक इस वर्णन के साथ अपनी यात्रा का विवरण आरंभ करता है कि काठमांडू पहुँचकर उसने होटल की खोज आरंभ की और सौभाग्य से काठमांडू नगर के मध्य भाग में उसे मध्य श्रेणी का होटल मिल गया। इससे उसको प्रसन्नता हुई‌। दिन के शेष भाग को उसने अपने होटल  के कमरे में सोकर बिताया । काठमांडू अपने पशुपतिनाथ मंदिर के लिए विख्यात है। पशुपतिनाथ शिव के अनेक स्वरुपों में एक है। दूसरा बौद्ध धर्मावलंबियों की आस्था का केन्द्र एक मंदिर है जिसे बोधिनाथ स्तूप के नाम से जाना जाता है। बौद्ध धर्मावलंबी और पर्यटक यहाँ बराबर पूजा-अर्चना के लिए आते रहते हैं।
लेखक सबसे पहले पशुपतिनाथ मंदिर पहुँचता है। वहाँ की की भीड़, कोलाहल और वातावरण को देखकर वह घबरा-सा   जाता है। ज्वर की पीड़ा से आक्रान्त हो जाने-सा अनुभव होता है। लेखक कहता है— मंदिर परिसर में पुजारियों की भीड़ थी, भक्तों का मेला था, गायें इधर – उधर विचरण  कर रही थीं, बंदर उत्पात मचा रहे थे, कबूतर झुण्ड में पंख फड़फड़ा रहे थे, और कुत्तों का समुदाय एक – दुसरे पर गुर्रा रहा था। बड़ा अजीब दृश्य था जिसे कुछ पर्यटक अपने कैमरे में कैद करने की कोशिश कर रहे थे।
भक्तजन पूजन हेतु एक – दुसरे को  धक्का देकर पशुपतिनाथ के विग्रह के निकट पहुँचने का प्रयास कर रहे थे ताकि ईश्वर का आशीर्वाद दूसरा न पहले लूट ले। इस भीड़ और अशान्ति के बीच अचानक दृश्य बदल जाता है – पता चला कि राजपरिवार की एक राजकुमारी पूजन के हेतु पधार रही है। वे सर झुकाकर उनका अभिवादन करते हैं और उन्हें प्राथमिकता के आधार पर पूजन का अवसर प्राप्त होता है । इस बीच गेरुआ वस्त्रधारी कुछ विदेशी भक्त मंदिर में प्रवेश करने हेतु आन्दोलन की मुद्रा अपना लेते हैं पर शास्त्रधारी पुलिस द्वारा प्रवेश की अनुमति नहीं दी जाती है क्योंकि इस मंदिर के नियम के अनुसार केवल हिन्दू ही यहाँ प्रवेश के अधिकारी हैं।
इस बीच एक दूसरा दृश्य लेखक को आकर्षित करता है – दो बन्दर आपस में उलझ जाते हैं और लड़ते-लड़ते एक शिवलिंग के ऊपर पड़ते हैं। मंदिर का परिसर उनका युद्धक्षेत्र बन जाता है । इस दृश्य का अन्त तब होता है जब वे मंदिर के नीचे बहती पवित्र बागमती नदी की ओर चले जाते हैं। लेखक बागमती नदी के किनारे का दृश्य भी अपनी लेखनी में कैद करता है – कुछ लाशों नदी के तट पर जलाती जा रही  थी, धोबीगण नदी के किनारे स्थित मकान की बालकनी से कोई व्यक्ति कुछ सूखे पत्ते और पूजा के मुरझाये फूल और अन्य सामग्री नदी की धारा में ऊपर से फेंक देता है। पवित्र नदी बिना किसी प्रतिकार के इन सबको भी ग्रहण करती है।
मंदिर और नदी के किनारे के दृश्य को छोड़ते हुए लेखक उस ओर बढ़ जाता है जहाँ बौद्ध स्तूप एवं मंदिर हैं । बौद्ध स्तूप सफेद पत्थरों से निर्मित है जिसके चारों ओर काली – काली घुमावदार सड़कें बनीं हैं। वे चाँदी के तरह-तरह के आभूषण, चन्द तिब्बती कलाकृतियाँ, बैग एवं अन्य छोटे-छोटे सामान बेचते हैं। लेखक यहाँ से निकलकर काठमांडू की भीड़ वाली सड़कों पर निकल पड़ता है । इन सड़कों पर छोटे-छोटे  मंदिर हैं, फल विक्रेता की दुकानें हैं, प्रसाध न की सामग्री बेचने वाले केन्द्र हैं, ताँबे के बर्तन जहाँ बहुतायत से उपलब्ध हैं और जहाँ फेरीवाले तरह – तरह समान लिये खरीददारों को आकर्षित करते हैं। मोटर साइकिल के हारन की कर्कश आवाज रेडियो पर बजते फिल्म संगीत साइकील  की घंटियों की  आवाज किसी को भी पागल बना सकती है।
इस भीड़ की भ्रान्तिमूलक स्थितियों से गुजरते हुए लेखक को घर लौटने की याद आ जाती है । वह सोचता है वह यहाँ से बस और फिर टैरेन द्वारा पटना पहुँचे। यहाँ गंगा पार का वाराणसी, इलाहाबाद और फिर यमुना के किनारे होते हुए आगरा और फिर दिल्ली । फिर से अचानक लगता है कि बहुत तक गया है और उसे सीधा घर वापस पहुँचना चाहिए। वह नेपाल एयर लाइन्स के कार्यालय में पहुँच जाता है और कल की विमान सेवा का वापसी टिकट खरीद लेता है। होटल के पास के चौराहे के पास उसे एक बाँसुरी बेचने वाला दिखाई देता है।  लेखक बाँसुरी बेचने वाले की ओर खींचा चला जाता है। वह अपनी बेचने के लिए कोई आवाज और नहीं लगता लेकिन बीच-बीच में रुककर अपनी बाँसुरी दो – एक ग्राहकों को बेच लेता। लेखक यह अनुभव करता है कि बाँसुरी वाला, व्यवसाय से ज्यादा संगीत का प्रेमी हैं। शायद वर्षों से उसके जीवन का क्रम यही रहा है। लेखक को भी संगीत प्रिय है और खासकर बाँसुरी की सुरीली आवाज उसके दिल के ज्यादा करीब आ जाती है । बाँसुरी विश्व के अनेक देशों में बजायी जाती है । जापान की बाँसुरी ‘ शाकुआहाची ‘ भारतीय बाँसुरी जिस पर हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत की अवतारणा होती है या दक्षिण अमेरिका की बाँसुरी जिसकी फूँक गहरी होती है या फिर चीन की ऊँचे स्वर वाली बाँसुरी – सबके बजाने का ढ़ंग अलग-अलग होता है क्योंकि उनके छेदों  पर अंगुलियों के संचालन का ढ़ंग अपना होता है। यह मानव जन के स्वर के साथ आत्मसात होता है और एकाकार होकर गूँजता है। मानव भी जीवन के लिए क्षणिक विश्राम लेता है और फिर चलता है। मनुष्य का यह गुण , बाँसुरी का गुण है।
लेखक घर वापस आकर चिन्तन करता है— क्या बात है कि इस बार बाँसुरी के स्र्वरों ने उसे इतना उद्वेलित किया ? पहले भी लम्बी यात्रा के बाद मैं घर लौटा हूँ पर इसके पहले घटनाओं पर इतनी गहराई से दृष्टि नहीं डाली और नहीं इतना आन्दोलन और प्रभावित हुआ ?
               Glossary : शब्दावली
Travel (n): यात्रा । Cheap (adj): सस्ता। Priests (n): पुजारी। Febrile (adj): ज्वर संबंधी।  Clab (v): पोशाक का पहनना । Roam(v): इधर-उधर टहलना। Scream (v): चीखना। Corpse (n): शव। Shrine (n): पूजा-स्थल। Immense (n) आप्रवासी।Wilt(v): सूखा हुआ। Mercenary (adj): अर्थलोलुप । Porcupine (n): शाहिल ( एक प्रकार का जानवर जिसके शरीर पर बड़े-बड़े काँटे निकले होते हैं)। Bar(n): छड़। Marzipen(n): बादाम को घिसकर बनाई गई विशेष प्रकार की मिठाई । Roast (v): आग पर सेंकना । Quills(n): शाहिल के कांटे । Curiously (adj): आश्चर्यजनक रूप में ।
Significance (n): विशेषता ।

        SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

A. Answer the following questions :

1. Have you ever visited a sacred place ? Share your experience with your friends.
Ans. I have visited a number of sacred place of our country but I liked Haridwar the most. It is a beautiful place surrounded by forest. The sacred Ganga touches the earth here after crossing mountains starting from ‘ Gomukh’. The water of Ganga is cool, clear and soothing. ‘Har ki  Pauri ‘  on the bank of Ganga is place of attraction for the visitors. The place is situated in ‘ Uttarakhand ‘ state.

Q.2. Name some of the holy place of your state.
Ans.Some of the holy place of our state are bodh Gaya where Buddha got enlitenment, Vishnupad situated in Gaya on the bank of phalgu river and Patna Saheb  where the tenth guru of Sikh religion, Guru of Sikh religion, Guru Govind Singh was born.

Q.3. Describe the surrounding of a holy place you have visited.
Ans. My visit to Varanasi has been quite memorable. The place is famous for Kashi Vishwanath temple. Pilgrims from all over India visit this place throughout the year. There are beautiful ghats on the bank of Ganga. The tourists enjoy boating in Ganga. The famous Benares Hindu University is also situated here.

B.1.1Write ‘ T ‘ for Ture and ‘ F ‘ for False statements :
(a) At Pashupatinath there is an atmosphere of febrile confusion.
[T] (b) By the main gate an Indian struggles for permission to enter. [F] (C) I consider what route I should take back home. [ T] (d) From a balcony a basket of flowers and leaves, old offerings now wilted is dropped into the take. [ F] (C) I entere a Nepal Airport office and buy a ticket for the day after tomorrow flight. [ F ]

B.1.2 Answer the following questions very briefly :

1. With whom does Mr. Vikram Seth visit the two temples in Kathmandu ?
Ans. Mr. Seth visited the two temples in Kathmandu with Mr. Sah’s son and Nephew.

2. Why does a party of saffron clad westerner struggle ?
Ans. The westerner clad in saffron wanted entremely white colour surrounded by black road. There are small shops on the outer edge atmosphere is that of peace and calmness through the busy streets a round.

Q.3. Briefly describe Baudhinath stupe.
Ans. Baudhinath stupa’s  dome is of extremely white colour surrounded by black road. There are small shops on the outer edge and atmosphere is that of peace and calmness through the busy streets a round.

Q.4. What does the another buy at Nepal Airlines ?
Ans. The author buy his ticket for return journey back home.

Q.5. When will the Kaliyug end on earth ?

Ans. There was a small shrine which was half protruding from the stone platform of the river Bagmati. It is said that which this will emerge out fully the Goodness inside the shrine will escape and the Kaliyug period on earth will end.

B.2. Answer the following questions very briefly :
   

1. Where does the author look at the flute seller ?
    Ans. The author finds the flute seller standing in a corner of the square near the hotel.
    2. Name three kinds of flute.
    Ans. The three kinds of flute referred by the author are : (a) Japanese ‘ Shakuhachi ‘.(b) The Indian Bansuri of Hindustani classical music (c) The high pitched Chinese flute.
   3. What does the flute seller have in his hand ?
   Ans. The  flute seller was holding a pole in his hand with a. Attachment at the from which about fifty to sixty flutes were protruding on all sides.
   4. Why does the another find it different to go away from the square ?
   Ans. Because he was moved by the sound of music of the flute.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

1. Why is Kathmandu famous ? Describe briefly.

Ans. Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal, the Himalayan an country. It has the famous temples of lord Shiva known as Pashupatinath temple. It has big market of international consumer goods and a place of tourists attraction.

Q.2  Describe  the Baudhinath Stupa and its surroundings.

Ans. This is a famous temple of the Buddhists in Kathmandu. It’s high dome is of pure white in colour making it attractive . It is ringed by a road with small shops on its brinks. The atmosphere is that of quiteness and peace. The Tibatan shop owners sell goods of interest for the visitors and tourists.

3. Describe daily happening at Pashupatinath.
Ans. The temple gets crowded with worshippers every morning with priests and devotees trying to reach near the deity to offer first Puja. The one elbows the other pushing their way. There are hawkers, tourists, cows, monkeys, pigeons and even the dogs romaning through the grounds. The writer describes the scenes as of febrile confusion.

4. What according to author has been the pattern of the flute sellers life ?
Ans. The flute seller was more interested in the playing of the flute than its sale. He played the flute, slowly going up to the mid pitch without excessive display. The sale was only incidental. Sometimes he used to take a break to talk to the fruit seller. This has been perhaps the pattern of flute seller’s life for years, felt the author.

5. The author was moved by the music of the flute. Describe a similar experience of your own.
Ans. Music moves is an unviersally accepted phenomenon. Once, when I was a student doing my masters degree, I was strolling on the road near my house swith one of my friends. It was night time around 10P.M. Suddenly we heard some girls’s voice coming from the proof of a road side house. She was singing some light music. The voice was so melodious that we could not proceed further. It was so enchanting that it really moved both of us equally.

C.2. Group Discussion [ To be arranged by the class Teacher ]

(a) Subject- I Religious tolerance is in limit in Indian society.

Points (a) India believe in universal brotherhood.
(b) Co – experience is key to our social system.
(c) Ours is a multi racial, multi religious socity.
(d) We have for each other’s faith and religion.
(e) Unity in diversity is our prime national objective.

C.2.2. Music has overwhelming power points for discussion :

(a) Universal appeal of music.
(b) Something power of music.
(c) Music has no lauguage.
(d) It generates energy and has relaxing effects on mind and body.
(e) It creates brotherhood.
(f) It bridges agegap and create a common platform for all age group.

C.3.1Write a paragraph on an important holy place.
Ans.  Rajgir which was earlier know is ‘ Rajgrih ‘ is an important holy place situated in the direct of Nalanda of Bihar State. There are not water spring on a hillock in Rajgir where people take bath particularly in winter. Gautam Buddha had visited and stayed at this place. There are other ancient and mythological monuments in and around Rajgir. The famous ancient university of Nalanda is situated nearby. Pawapuri where the 24 th Tirthankar of Jainism breathed his last is also Nalanda.

C.3.2 Narrate any travel experience in about 100 words.
Ans. A visit to Calcutta about two year back had been quite interesting. We travelled by Vibhuti  Express which runs between Varanasi and Howrah. The journey was quite comfortable. Next morning we reached Howrah station and  had occasion of seeing Howrah Bridge on river Hooghly. It was amazing. Next day we went to see Victoria memorial, the zoo, the museum and the National library which  has huge collection of books. We went to see the famous Eden Garden of Calcutta where cricket matches are held. We also enjoyed the famous Rasgulla and ‘ Misti Dahi ‘ of Calcutta.

D. Word Study :

D.1.Dictionary Use: Correct the spelling of the following words :
Incorrect                         Correct
Suroundings              Surroundings
Canvinse                     Convince
Cremat                         Cremate
Shrim                            Shrine
Relegious                     Religious
Flut                                Flute
Sametime                     Sometime
Occasionaly                Occasionally
Familier                        Familiar

D.2. Fill  in the blanks with suitable forms of verbs given below.do, notice, Convince, invest, buy.
1. Tibetan prints and jewellery can be brought in Kathmandu.
2. The policeman is not convinced that they are  Hindus.
3. I have hardly noticed such details and certainly have not invested them with the significance I now do.

D.3. Match the words in Column’ A ‘
With their meaning given in Column ‘ B ‘.
A                                     B
(i) Vivid                          bright [f] (ii) Sacred                      holy [g] (iii) Attachment            affection [d] (iii) Description          writing that
says what something is
like [c] (iv) Excessive            extravagant [b] (V) Imagine                 Conceive
(Vi) Certainly              confidently [a]

D.4. Read the lesson carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used. Then use them in sentences of your own.

Phrases :
1. Ring by [ Para-3] : The school building is ringed by a beautiful garden.
2. Roam through [Para – 2 ] : I roamed through the streets of Kathmandu.
3. Look at [ Para -6 ] : Look at this picture. It is so beautiful.
4. Sail up [ Para- 5 ]: He decided to sail up the stream of the river.
5. Move by [Para – 5 ] : I moved by lanes to reach market.
6. Break off [Para -6 ]: Sometimes he breaks off the study to listen to radio.
7. Take back [Para – 5 ]: I should take back home early after school.
8. At the top [Para – 6 ]: At the top of the building there were many pigeons.
9. Way to [Para – 2 ] : Every body was trying to make way to the deity at the earliest.
10. Way to [Para- 2] : Every body was trying to make way to the deity at the earliest.

                 GRAMMAR

1. Relative clauses
2. Restrictive or continuative or non relative clauses please read the text book for learning the definition and uses of Relative, Restrictive continuative and non relative clauses and the examples given there in.
Exercises : Complete the paragraph by using relative clauses given below:
Ex.1. Who is a famous actor
Where my brother Amitabh has been living
I am going to Delhi where my brother Amitabh has been living for the last five years. I am eager to see the Metro Rail which is very impressive. I will also meet Govinda who is a famous actor.

Ex. 2. How to reach there.
Where my friend Gopi lives.
Which is a world famous
monument.
I am looking forward to my visit to Agra where my friend Gopi leaves. My father has described to me the way how to reach there.
Where, which and how are Relative Clause in the above example.

Ex.3. Pick out Relative Clause in the following sentences:
1. He who loves the poor is loved by God.
2. This is the boy who stood first in his class last year.
3. This is the house that Mr. Sen built.
4. He is the boy whom I want to teach.
5. I am going to Ranchi where my brother has been living for ten years. The Relative Clauses in the above examples are shown in black face.

F. Activity :
   Project to be organised by class teacher as directed.

G. Translation :
Translate the Following sentence into English :

1. लड़का जो वर्ग में बैठा है मेरा छोटा भाई है।
The boy who is sitting in the class room is my younger brother.
2. पुस्तक जो मैंने खरीदी है, महंगी है।
The book which I have purchased is quite costly.
3. जो गाय मेरे पास है वह काफी दुध देती है ।
The crow with me gives lot of milk.
4. क्या यह वहीं लड़की है जो वार्षिक परीक्षा में वर्ग में प्रथम आया है।
Is this the boy who stood first in the class in the Annual examination ?
5. क्या यह वही मकान है जिसे तुम्हारे पिता जी ने बनाया था।
Is this the house which was built by your father ?
6. यह वही कुत्ता है जो न भूँकता है और न काटता है।
This is the dog, which neither barks nor bites.
7. यह वही व्यक्ति है जो कहता बहुत है पर करता कम है।
This is the person, who talks too much but does little.
8. मैं बम्बई जाना चाहता हूँ जहाँ मेरा भाई तीन वर्षों से रह रहा है।
I want to go to Bombay where my brother is living since last three years.
9. क्या यह वही घोड़ा है जिसे तुमने गत वर्ष खरीदा ?
Is this the horse you bought last year ?
10. मैं ताजमहल देखना चाहता हूँ जिसे शाहजहाँ ने बनवाया?
I want to see the  Taj which was built by Shahjaha.

 

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