bihar board class 9 english solution
class – 9
subject – english
lesson 8 – ABRAHAM LINCOLN’S
LETTER TO HIS SON’S TEACHER
— Abraham Lincoln
Regarding the poet : Abraham Loncoln was the sixteenth president of United States of America. He successfully led his country through its greatest internal crisis. Those were the days of American civil war. He was responsible for introducing measures that resulted in the abolition of slavery. This he did through Emancipation proclamation (घोषणा) in 1863 and promoting passage of the thirteenth Amendment to the constitution. Lincoln successfully addressed the American people and rallied public opinion through his powerful speeches. Lincoln held a moderate view of reconstruction. He wanted that the nation should speedly rewrites through a policy of reconciliation. He was killed in the year 1865 and thus he became a martyr who lived for the ideal of national unith.
The present piece of poem reflects his mind as to the way the children of the country should he educated. He has expressed his views though a letter to the teacher of his son.
SUMMARY IN ENGLISH
1. He addresses his message through teacher to his son and says that he must be taught that ” all men are not just and all men are not true. ” Every scoundrel (बदमाश) has a hero (नायक) and every selfish political person has dedicated leader.
2. Teach him that for every enemy, there is a supporter friend and teach him that if you earn a dollar through your own efforts, it carries more value than five pound. He should be taught that one has to loose to win. One should enjoy the victory as one best sad onosing. But the greatest thing is to avoid becoming envious. If one can laugh silently and peacefully, he gains more power.
3. Teach him to learn early thrly he should ignore the teasing words of others. It is always good to learr the story of knowledge in a book but the mystery of birds in the sky, flowers on the hill side and the humming of bees in the open sun (धूप ) should also be known. He should be taught to pass the examination with honour than getting success throuhrough cheating. He should develop confidence and faith in his own ideas than being misguided by someone. Be gentle with gentle people but never take a tough person softly. One has to be tough with him. He should not follow the crowd blindly. He should have the courage not to follow the band wagon but to make his own path.
4. Teach my son to listen to all but he should analyze what he has listened and take out only the truth. He should accept only the good ones that comes out of it. There is no shame in shedding tears but one should not be sad for something he could not achieve. Laugh out such agonies when it comes. He should drive out the cymies but should also be cautions to the words of those who wants to be sweet without reaso .
5. My son should never low down before a weak person. His strength and intelligence should be available should never sell out his soul to any body. There should not be any price or bargain for the soul and heart. He should not listen to the crying or howling words of the crowd and face them if. He thinks, he is right. They should be treated politely but never embrace them. The last steel is made when it goes through fire.
6. There is nothing wrong in becoming impatient at time but he must show patience and become brave. He should be told to have faith in himself. Then he will develop faith in mankind. In the end the poet says to the teacher that he has given him a big task but he task but he must evaluate himsell as to what can do or what he can not do but one thing I can tell you, the teachers that my son is a fine fellow.
SUMMARY IN HINDI
कवि के बारे में : अब्राहम लिंकन संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के सोलहवें राष्ट्रपति थे। दास प्रथा की समाप्ति के लिये उन्होंने अनेक कदम उठाये। इसके लिये उन्होंने 1863 में एक अध्यादेश जारी किया और अमेरिकी संविधान सम्पादित करवाया । इतना ही नहीं उन्होंने जनजागरण लाने के लिये जनसभायें कीं और अपने जोशिले भाषण से जनमानस को अपनी और आकर्षित किया। अब्राहम लिंकन चाहते थे कि शीघ्रता से देश में एकता का वातावरण उत्पन्न हो। वर्ष 1865 में अब्राहम लिंकन की हत्या कर दी गयी और इस प्रकार वे देश की एकता के लिये शहीद हो गये।
अब्राहम लिंकन द्वारा लिखी यह कविता इस भाव को अभिव्यक्त करती है कि देश के बच्चों को शिक्षा किस प्रकार दी जानी चाहिये। कविता का माध्यम एक पत्र है जो वे अपने पुत्र के शिक्षक को लिखते हैं ।
कविता का भावार्थ :
1. कवि अपनी इस कविता के माध्यम से अपने बेटे को कुछ संदेश देता है जिसका आधार उसने, उसके शिक्षक को बनाया है। कवि कहता है कि मेरे पुत्र को यह अवश्य बताना कि दुनिया में सभी लोग ठीक और सच्चें नहीं है। सभी बदमाशों के पीछे एक हीरो या नामक होता है और सभी स्वार्थी राजनीतिक व्यक्ति एक समर्पित नेता के अधीन कार्य करता है।
2. उसे यह भी बताया जाना चाहिये कि सभी शत्रुओं के पीछे उसका एक समर्थक मित्र होता है। अपनी मेहनत से कमाया गया एक डॉलर , पाँच पौंड से ज्यादा कीमती होता है। अपनी जीत पर खुशियाँ मनाओ पर- उसी प्रकार हार गम में बदल जाता है। लेकिन ईष्या का त्याग सबसे नियामत है। अगर कोई चुपचाप और शांतिपूर्वक मुस्कुराता है तो वह ज्यादा शक्ति अर्जित करता है।
3. अगली पंक्तियों में कवि कहता है कि दूसरों के द्वारा तुम्हे अगर चिढ़ाया जाता है तो उसे तुम भूल । उसकी उपेक्षा करो । पुस्तकों मे संग्रहित ज्ञान के भंडार से ज्ञान का अर्जन उत्तम है। उसे यह भी सीख देनी चाहिये कि सम्मानपूर्वक परीक्षा पास करना ही व्यक्तित्व का निर्माण करना है। चोरी करके सफलता पाना प्रतिगामी बनता है। इससे आत्मविश्वास का हृास होता है। अपने विचारों को आधार देना सीखों – दुसरे के बहकाने पर कोई काम करना कदापि उचित नहीं है। सज्जन व्यक्ति के साथ सज्जनता का व्यवहार अपेक्षित नहीं।
कठोर के साथ कठोर होना और रूखापन ही सही है। सदा अपने रास्ते का निर्माण स्वयं करो , भीड़ के पीछे अन्धा बनकर चलना उचित नहीं होगा।
4. मेरे पुत्र को यह शिक्षा दें कि सबकी सुने पर उनकी बातों पर गम्भीरतापूर्वक विचार करने के बाद ही सत्य की परख करे। अपनी असफलताओं पर आँसू बहाना लज्जाजनक नहीं है पर निराश होकर बैठ जाना सराहनीय नहीं । ऐसी स्थितियों को हँसकर उड़ा दो, भूला दो। मीठा बोलने वालों से सावधानी बरतो और नाकारात्मक सोच रखने वालों को पास भटकने मत दो ।
5. कमजोर लोगों के आगे झुकना की सलाह मत देना । अपनी प्रतिमा को केवल सम्मानजनक लोगों के सम्मुख प्रकट करो । तुम्हारी बुद्धि अनमोल है और इसे सस्ता बनाना ठीक नहीं । पर उसका हृदय और उसकी आत्मा पर ताले नहीं लगने चाहिये। वह सबके लिये खुली रहें।
भीड़ के आगे झुकना ठीक नहीं । उनकी अनर्गल बातों पर कभी ध्यान नहीं देना । इनके साथ नम्रता बरतो परंतु उन्हें कभी गले मत लगाओ । उत्तम लोहे का निर्माण आग में पूर्ण रूप से तपने के बाद होता है।
6. कवि पुनः कहता है — कभी- कभी असहिष्णु होना गलत नहीं है पर सहिष्णुता से ताकत मिलती है अतः सहने का बल अपने में पैदा करो । अपने पर विश्वास करना सीखो — इससे मानवजाति पर तुम्हरा विश्वास मजबूत होगा ।
अन्त में कवि शिक्षक को कहता है कि उसने उसे एक बड़ा दायित्व सौंपा है। पर उसे आत्ममंथन कर निर्णय लेना चाहिये कि वह क्या कर सकता है और क्या नहीं कर सकता है— पर एक बात मैं कहना चाहूँगा कि मुझे अपने पुत्र पर आस्था है। वह एक अच्छा लड़का है।
Glossary : शब्दावली
Scoundrel (n): दुष्ट , पाजी, बदमाश। Envy (n): ईष्या । Lick (v): चाटना । Dedicated: समर्पित । Ponder (v): विचार करना। Scoff(v): मजाक उड़ाना। Cynie (n): छिद्रान्वेषी। Sublime (Adj.): महान , प्रशंसनीय। Cuddle (v): गले लगाना
। Eternal (Adj.): अनन्त , नित्य ।
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
A. Answer the following questions orally :
1. What do you know about Abraham Lincoln,the famous president of America .
Ans. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of America. He fought against the system of slavery in the country. He wanted and worked for the unity of the country.he is still remembered
For his services to the nation.
2.has your father ever written any letter to your teacher?
Ans.there has been no occasion to write a letter to the teacher. teacher parent meet take place at least twice in a year in the school to discuss the progress of the boy .
3. can you imagine how much your father is worried for your future ?
Ans. my father or for that matter any father is always worried for the future of his son and daughter.
B.1. write ‘t’ for true and’F’for false statement :
1. it is a letter written by a father to his son.
2. All men are not just and true. [T]
3. A dollar earned is of far value than five pound.
4. One should be taught to mourn over losing.
5. One should be taught to fail rather than to cheat. [T]
B.2. Complete the sentences on the basis of your reading of the poem.
1. Teach him to sell his brawn and brain to the highest bidder.
2. Teach him to gentle with gentle people.
3. Teach him to scuff at cynies.
4. Teach him it is far honourable to fail than to cheat.
5. Let him learn early that the bullies are the easiest to lick.
6. Teach him the wonder of books.
7. He should be given quite time to ponder the external mystery of birds in the sky.
8. One should have sublime faith in himself to have faith in mankind.
LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. Why did Abraham Lioncoln Write a letter to his son’s teacher ?
Ans. Actually this is an open letter written to teacher to guide the future generation. Lincoln was so disturbed with the unfaithful persons of country of that time that the he thought of cautioning the younger generation to take care of themselves so that they are not misguided.
2. What does Lincoln mean by saying the ” for every scoundrel there is a hero, that for every selfish politician, there is a dedicated leader”.
Ans. The poet says that scoundrel and hero go side by side. Similarly a selfish politician and a dedicated leader exist equally in the socity. The young generation should apply their brain to choose the right person.
3. A child should be treated gentle but not cuddling. Do you agree ?
Ans. Too much cuddling may spoil the child. He should be treated softly to give him opportunity for proper growth. Cuddling may take him in the wrong way.
4. ” All men are not just, all men are not true”. Comment on this statement.
Ans. The poet cautious his son that he should learn to recognise a true man because in this world of our all men are not just and true. He should try to keep away from unjust and untrue person.
5. Why do you think Lincoln wants his son to steer away from envy and learn the secret of quiet laughter.
Ans. The poet feels that envy is the greatest vice in man’s personality. Envy desstorys the screat will of a man to win. Anybody can win anybody can loose but should one be envious of the winner. A quiet smile and laughter would put an end to the eney arising out in mind and heart.
6. Why does Lincoln not want his son to follow the crowd when everyone is getting on the band wagon ?
Ans. Crowd is an assembly of unaligned persons. There cannot be a common thinking of the crowd. The crowd can follow anybody’s dictation which may result in disaster. On band wagon’s tune everybody only dances without applying any reasonable thought.
7. What qualities did Lincoln want his son’s teacher to teach him ?
Ans. The poet has talked of many good qualities which can help his son in character building. The main qualities bare:
Follow truth. Do not be envious. Be gentle. Have patience and faith in himself and beware of cynic people etc.
C.2. Discussion :
The present system of education is at variance with the learners experience.
Points for discussion :
1. Present education is more bookish.
2. It is not gives practical knowledge.
3. The boys and girls fail to face the reality of life after their education is over.
4. They are unable to build up self confidence together momentum after education.
5. They neither become a good worker or a good manager.
6. So the education they receive goes a waste and they have to restart to manage their life.
C.3. Imagine your sister studies in class V. You find some problem with her. Write a letter to her teacher drawing her attention to the problem.
Dear Teacher, Patna,
I am writing this letter to you to draw your kind attention towards Sushma who is a student of class V of your school.
Recently I find that she is not paying attention towards mathematics. On enquiry she told that the sums are very difficult and she is unable to solve. Kindly do something to guide her so that she picks up confidence. On our part, we shall also work with her in overcoming her problem.
Hope to listen from you
With kind regards,
The principal Your sincerely
St. Joseph Convent
Boring Canal Road, Abhijit Snehi
D. Work study:
D.1. Correct the spelling of the following words:
D.2. Write the synonyms of the following words :
Enjoy pleasure, Delight
Wonder Surprise, miracle
Howl Cry of dog or wolf
Such words which are used to establish relation between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence is called preposition. The relationship may be based on time, place, position or directory etc.
1. ‘Above’, ‘under’, ‘below’ etc are the preposition of place.
2. ‘ On’, ‘at’, ‘untill’, are the preposition of time.
Find the some other prepositions from the lesson :
To learn preposition of direction
Steer him away from -do-
On a hill side preposition of place
To scoff at cynics preposition of
In the school Preposition of place
On screen of truth proposition of
Sublime faith in himself -do-
F. Activity :
Do a project work on the Gurukul, the ancient system of education in India.
[ To be organized by the class
G. Translation :
Translate the following sentences into English :
1. तुम्हें अंग्रेजी सीखना होगा ।
You Will have to learn English.
2. सरकार को अंग्रेजी अनिवार्य करनी होगी ।
Government will have to make English compulsory.
3. रोजगार के लिये अंग्रेजी पढ़नी होगी।
One has to learn English for seeking job.
4. सभी लोग दयालु नहीं होते ।
All people are not kind.
5. सभी बदमाश में एक नायक होता है।
There is one hero amongst soundrels.
6. बुराई में अच्छाई भी होती है।
There are some good elements inherent in bad ones.
7. प्रत्येक दुश्मन में एक दोस्त होता है।
In every foe there is a friend.
8. उसे आराम से अंग्रेजी सीखने दें।
Let him learn English Comfortably.
9. अगर पढ़ा सकते हैं तो किताबें के महत्व के बारे में बतावें ।
While teaching he should be taught about the importance of books.
10. मेरे भाई की अंग्रेजी सीखने की कोशिश करने दें ।
Let my brother try to learn English.