class 8 english book solution
class – 8
subject – english
lesson 16 – HARVESTING RAIN
( वर्षा जल को जमा रखना )
HINDI TRANSLATION OF THE CHAPTER
Have you ever …….thrilling experience . ( Page – 156 )
Wrod meaning : Ever ( adv ) [ एवर ] – कभी । Showers ( n ) [ शावस ] = बारिश । Shortage ( n ) [ शॉर्टेज ] = कमी । Thrilling ( adj ) [ थिलिंग ] = रोमांचक । Experience ( n ) [ एक्सपीरिएन्स ] = अनुभव ।
हिन्दी अनुवाद – क्या कभी तुमने बरसात के पानी को जमा किया है । मेरा परिवार तो ऐसा करता था । हम बारिश के पानी को जमा करते थे और उसको उपयोग में लाते थे । पानी की हमें गर्मियों में काफी कमी होती थी तो जून महीने की बारिश में बरसात के पानी को हम जमा किया करते थे ।
My adventure with …… rain water harvesting .
Word meaning : Adventure ( n ) [ एडवेंचर ] = रोमांच , साहसिक कारनामा / कार्य । Method ( m ) [ मेथड ] = तरीका | Domestic ( adj ) [ डोमेस्टिक ] = घरेलू । Archipelago ( n ) [ आर्किपेलेगो ] = टापुओं का समूह | Unpredictable ( adj ) [ अनप्रिडिक्टेबल ] = जिसके बारे में कुछ , कहना या भविष्यवाणी करना संभव न हो । Fresh ( adj ) [ फ्रेश ] = ताजा ।
अर्थ – वर्षा के जल के साथ मेरा रोमांच चलता रहा । मालदीव में अध्यापन के दौरान मैंने वर्षा जल – स होते हुए देखा । क्या है यह वर्षा जल संग्रह ? यह असल में एक तरीका है वर्षा – जल को घरेलू कार्यों के लिए संग्रह किये जाने का । मालदीव दक्षिणी एशिया में स्थित है । यह टापुओं का समूह है । यहाँ 1,190 टापू हैं । इन टापुओं में वर्षा आती है उत्तर – पूर्वी मानसून और दक्षिण – पश्चिमी मानसून से । वर्षा यहाँ कभी – कभार ही होती है जिसके ताजा जल की यहाँ काफी किल्लत है । जमीन का जो पानी होता है , वह पीने के योग्य नहीं होता है । यहाँ के लोगों को वर्षा के जल का संग्रह करना सिखाया जाता है!
Each newly built ……locking the tap .
Word meaning : Newly ( adv ) [ न्यूली ) = नया बना हुआ । Slope ( n ) [ स्लोप ] = ढलान | Corrugated ( adj ) [ कॉरूगेटेड ) = नालीदार | Sealed ( adj ) ( सील्ड ] = बंद किया हुआ । Extend ( v ) [ एक्स्टेन्ड ] = विस्तार करना ।
अर्थ — प्रत्येक नया बना घर ढलान वाली छल के साथ बनता है जिसमें लोहे की नालियाँ नीचे को जाती हैं । इनका उपयोग नीचे पानी जमा करने के लिए होता है । नीचे जमीन पर सीमेट की टंकी बनी होती है जिसमें छत से नीचे आती लोहे की पाइपें जुड़ी होती हैं । इन नालियों से वर्षा का जल छत से होते टंकी में आता है जहाँ बरसात का पानी जमा किया जाता है । टंकी के बाहर में नल लगा होता है जिसमें ताला लगाने की भी व्यवस्था की जाती है ।
Once the tank pleasant to drink .
Word meaning : Ran dry ( phr ) [ रैन ड्राई ) = सूख गया । Plenty ( adj ) [ प्लेन्टी ] = बहुतायत , अत्यधिक । Extremely ( adv ) [ एक्स्ट्रीमली ] = बहुत ज्यादा , अधिकता से । Downpour ( m ) [ डाउनपोर ] = बारिश । Delighted ( adj ) [ डिलाइटेड ] = प्रसन्न । Encour age ( v ) [ एनकरेज ] = प्रोत्साहित करना । Level ( n ) [ लेवेल ] = स्तर । Abundant ( adj ) [ एबन्डन्ट = प्रचुर ।
अर्थ – एक बार , मैं जिस घर में रहता था वहाँ टंकी में पानी खत्म हो गया । पर , मुझे परेशनी नहीं हुई । स्कूल के टंकी में बहुत पानी था । दरअसल , स्कूल की छत काफी बड़ी होने से वहाँ बहुत बड़ी टंकी थी और पानी भी उसमें काफी था । लंबे समय के बीत जाने के बाद खूब बारिश हुई थी एक रात । मैं काफी खुश था क्योंकि अच्छी बारिश का मतलब था कि मेरे घर की टंकी पानी से भर रही थी । लेकिन यह क्या ! सुबह देखा तो टंकी खाली थी । दरअसल , यहाँ पहली बारिश के पानी को बहा दिया जाता है ताकि छत से लेकर टंकी तक खूब अच्छी तरह से साफ हो सके । सारी दुनिया में लोग अब वर्षा – जल – संग्रह करना सीख रहे हैं । पर , अब भी हमारे देश में बहुत पानी बर्बाद हो रहा है । इस प्रक्रिया को उपयोग में लाना , हमारे देश में स्कूलों के स्तर पर ही सिखाया जाना चाहिए ताकि हमारे देशवासी भी वर्षा के जल को संग्रह करें और पानी का दुरुपयोग होने से बचा सकें । हमें बारिश के पानी की सख्त जरूरत है क्योंकि यह काफी मात्रा में होता है , सुरक्षित भी होता है पीने के लिए और पीने में अच्छा भी लगता है ।
All over the world , there is shortage of drinking water . People should learn Rain water harvesting . So tht , water is not wasted and we get rain – water stored for our domestic purposes in times of scarcity of water . Rain water is abundant , safe and very sweet and pleasant to drink , we must learn how to save rain water . The following lesson teaches us very well , the process of rain water harvesting .
सारी दुनिया में पीने के पानी की बेहद कमी है । लोगों को वर्षा – जल संग्रह की प्रक्रिया सीखनी चाहिए । यह वक्त की जरूरत है और वर्तमान के जल – संकट के दौर में बेहद जरूरी भी है । इस प्रक्रिया को सीखने से वर्षा जल जो काफी मात्रा में बर्बाद हो रहा है यह बर्बादी एक जायेगी और जब जल की कमी होगी , तो जमा किया हुआ जल हमारे पीने और अन्य घरेलू कार्यों के लिए उपयोग में आएगा । वर्षा – जल प्रचुर होता है , यह पीने में बेहद सुरक्षित होता है , साफ और मीठा होता है । प्रस्तुत पाठ हमें रोचक ढंग से और काफी सरलता से वर्षा – जल – संग्रह की प्रक्रिया को समझाता है जिसका हमें अनुकरण करना चाहिए ।
A. WARMER Do you like to play in the rain ? List the things which you do in the rainwater . Have you ever seen people collecting rain water ? How do they collect the water ?
Ans . All children play in the rain . I also play in the rain . l run in the rain water . I play with the rainwater . Yes , I have seen people collecting rain water . They collect it in their buckets and tubs or large vessels .
B. LET’S COMPREHEND
B.1 . THINK AND TELL
B.1.1 . ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ORALLY .
Q. 1. When is collecting water a very thrilling experience ?
Ans . After facing scarcity or shortage of water for a long time .
Q.2 . When does the rainwater harvesting become useful and necessary ?
Ans . In summer season .
Q.3 . What is a necessary step before collecting rain water ?
Ans . To build slopping roofs attached with pipe going to ground connected with a cement tank to collect rain water.
B.1.2 . State whether the following statements are true or false .
1. The islands of Maldives received rainfall from North West monsoon .
2. The people in Maldives depend entirely on rain water harvesting for their needs for water .
3 All houses in Maldives have the sloping roofs made of corrugated iron . 4. The author’s school had water round the year .
5. Rain water is highly dependable . ( निर्भर होने के योग्य ) ।
Ans . 1. ( F ) . 2. ( T ) , 3. ( T ) , 4. ( F ) .5 . ( F ) .
B.2 . THINK AND WRITE
B.2.1 . Given below are the steps for harvesting rain in Maldives . But they are not in proper order . Put them in proper order .
1. The tank has a tap at its base .
2. Each newly built house is fitted with slopping roofs made of corru gated iron .
3. Some house have a system for locking the tap .
4. This is ideal for collecting rainwater . 5. The pipe is extended in such a way as to deliver the water into tank.
6. Gutters are nailed to the base of the roof and sealed off at one end .
7. The other end of gutter has a pipe that leads to a huge tank made of cement .
Ans . The proper order is as such .
2. Each newly builf house is fitted with slopping roofs made of corrugated iron . 4. This is ideal for collecting rainwater .
6. Gutters are nailed to the base of the roof and sealed off at one end .
7. The other end of gutter has a pipe that leads to a huge tarik made of cement .
5. The pipe is extnded in such a way as to deliver the water into tank .
1. The tank has as tap at its base .
3. Some houses have a system for locking the tap .
B.2.2 . Answer the following questions in about 30 words .
Q. 1. Ground water is becoming scarce and still its uses are many in our daily life . How can we gather and save water ?
Ans . We should save water by following the process of rain – water harvest ing . For this houses should have slopping roofs attached with corrugated iron pipe attached to a cement tank on the ground .
Q. 2. All of us enjoy rain . We get drenched in it . We play with the paper boats . What was the author’s experience of collecting rain water ?
Ans . The author’s family had faced severe water shortage in the summers . So , they used to store rain – water in buckets and other pots .
Q. 3. Our parents and teachers instruct us not to drench ourselves in the is rain shower . Why according to the author the early rain water in the season should be allowed to go a waste ?
Ans . In the process of rain – water – harvesting the early rain water should be allowed to go a waste so as to clean the roof and the tank properly .
Q. 4. Huge amount of rain water is lost in our country . It is the wast age of natural resource . Do you agree with this view ? Give reasons .
Ans . It is quite rightly said that huge amount of rain water be wasted in our country . I agree to it . It is due to lack of seriousness and sincerity to save the rain water or drinking water .
C. WORD STUDY
C.1 . Correct the following words to make them meaningful .
Experiance , corrgated , dilighted , incouraged , abundent .
C.2 . Match the words in A with their meaning in B :
huge. to establish
Set up. very big
Sealed up praised
plenty completely closed from
A ( Words ). B ( Meaning )
huge very big
Set up to establish
Sealed up completely closed
from all sides
plenty abundant set up
C.3 . Pick out the words which are opposite in meaning from the text .
plenty wet empty always lost
Words– Opposite words from the text Plenty —Shortage
C.4 . Find out the sentences in which the following words have been used in the lesson . Then use these words in your own sentences . shortage , thrilling , experience , groundwater .
Shortage– I have shortage of money , right now .
Thrilling– To climb on the hill was a thrilling experience for me .
Experience– You must experience climbing on a hill .
Ground water –Ground water becomes almost dry in the summer season .
D.1 . Participles used as adjectives .
Look at the following sentence : collecting water during the fune showers , especially after facing severe water shortage all summer was a thrilling experience .
Here , ‘ thrilling ‘ is a present participle ( verb + -ing ) used as an adjective . The past participle ( verb + ed or –en ) is also used as anadjective : e.g . , ‘ broken leg . Look at some more examples :
We saw an entertaining movie.
I kept the tickets in-sealed envelopes.
Robot is an exciting movie .
I wasn’t bored during the movie .
Present participle —
Robot has amazing visuals .
Past participles —
Are you interested in action movies?
In some cases , both the present participle and the past participle of the same verb can be used as adjective . For example :
Past participles , when used as adjectives , can be found in phrases such as the following :
a broken leg
a known fact
a closed door
a locked door
a crowded bus
an injured soldier
an air conditioned building
a broken promise
a married woman
an educated person
a used car
a sealed envelope
An adverb can be placed before past participle adjectives .
a well known fact
a well educated person
a well behaved child
a slightly used book
a closely watched experiment
closely related languages
a well dressed woman
a highly paid actor
Difference between almost and nearly .
Almost and nearly have similar meanings . They are both used to express ideas connected with progress , measurement or counting .
He slipped and almost fell to the ground .
He slipped and nearly fell to the ground .
Dinner is almost / nearly ready . ( = Dinner will soon be ready . )
Sometimes almost shows more ‘ nearness than nearly .
It is nearly 12 o’clock . ( = perhaps 11.45 )
It is almost 12 o’clock . ( = perhaps 11.55 )
Nearly can be used with very and pretty . Almost cannot be used with very and pretty.
I have pretty nearly finished . ( NOT I have pretty almost finished . )
Nearly suggests progress towards a goal . Almost suggests ideas such as similarity .
He is almost like a father to me . ( NOT He is nearly like a father to me . )
She has got a good accent . She almost sound American .
Almost is never used with a negative : you could say ” A is almost as good as B ” or ” A is nearly as good as B ” , but you can’t say ” A is almost not as good as B ”
Nearly is not normally used before negative words like never , nobody , nothing , any etc. Instead we use almost or hardly with ever , anybody , any thing etc.
The speaker said almost nothing .
The speaker said hardly anything . ( = The speaker said only a few words of little importance . ) [ NOT The speaker said nearly nothing . )
Almost nobody came .
Hardly anybody came . ( NOT Nearly nobody came . )
D.1.1 . Fill in the blanks with the correct participle ( present or past ) of the verb given in brackets . One has been done for you .
Ex . : I was bored ( bore ) during the movie and fell asleep .
1. After washing clothes for two hours , I felt ……….. ( tire ) .
2. Last night I saw an ……….. ( interest ) movie .
3. I didn’t enjoy watching Godzilla . It was a ………. ( frighten ) movie .
4. I have two sisters . One is single . The other is……,…
5. Learning a new language is sometimes very ………. ( frustrate ) .
6. The children were ……….. ( excite ) to see the tigers at the circus .
Ans . 1. tired , 2. interested , 3. frightening , 4. surprised , 5. frustrating , 6.excited .
D.1.2 . Fill in the blanks with an appropriate past participle . One has been done for you .
Ex .: I can’t go to the library because the door is locked .
1. Where is the Golghar ……….. ?
2. Last night I slept only for five hours . I’m so ……. today .
3. My room isn’t ……….. , so it’s hot in the summer .
4. I have two sisters . One is single . The other ……….
5. Anuj wasn’t ………. in Patna . He came here when he was six years old . 6. Many movies are ……….. in Bollywood .
7. Which director was ……… in making the movie ?
8. Our school bus is always …………
9. Children shouldn’t be to watch movies late a night .
10. Manoj Bajpai is a well —…. actor Ans .
1. Where is the Golghar situated ?
2 . night I slept only for five hours . I’m so exhausted today .
3. My room isn’t air – conditioned , so it’s hot in the summer .
4. I have two sisters . One is single . The other is married .
5. Anuj wasn’t born in Patna . He came here when he was six years old .
6. Many movies are made in Bollywood .
7. Which director was involved in making the movie ?
8. Our school bus is always late .
9. Children shouldn’t be allowed to watch movies late at night .
10. Manoj Bajpai is a well known actor .
D.2 . Sequence of tenses
If one clause follows another , its verb takes from according to certain rules . This is what we call sequence of tenses . The term sequence of tenses refers to the systematic way in which we alter the speaker’s verb tenses to make clear that all events , past or future , are not simultaneous .
The speaker says , ” I am tired of hearing that song . ”
We correctly report it : He said he was tired of hearing the song .
Here , changing the tense of the speaker from present to simple past consti tutes about most of the process we call sequence of tenses .
We do not say : He says he is tired of hearing the song .
The source says : ” The weather is bad . ”
We then would say / write : He said the weather was bad .
Some rules regarding the sequence of tenses are :
1 . If the main clause of a complex sentence is in the present tense or future tense , the verb of the dependent clause may take any form any tense . For example :
( 1 ) I know that he is a good singer . ( present tense after a present tense ) ( ii ) I know that Anshu will help me . ( future tense after a present tense ) ( iii ) I will see whether Sabiha finished her homework or not . ( past tense after a future tense ) .
( 2 )When the independent clause is in the past tense , the dependent clause must also be in the past tense . For example :
( i )Anu asked me why I was late . ( past tense after a past tense )
( ii ) Aslam told me that he was very tired . ( past tense after a past tense ) ( iii ) Ayesha replied that she had missed her train . ( past tense after a past tense ).
3. If the main clause is in the past tense , the dependent clause can be in the present tense only if it states a universal truth . For example :
( i )My mother taught me that honesty is the best policy .
( ii ) We learnt in school that the earth is round in shape .
I. Fill up the blanks with the correct tense of the verb given in brackets . ( a ) Anil ran as fast as he …………… ( can , could )
( b ) Just as we …………… the station , the train came . ( reach , reached )
( C ) You will pass the exam if you …………… ( try , tried ) .
( d ) He waited for his sister until she ………… ( come , came ) .
( e ) The teacher taught us that green leaves ……….. chlorophyll ( con tain , contains , contained )
( 1 ) Peter said that it ………… him an hour to reach the station . ( take , took )
Ans . ( a ) could , ( b ) reached , ( c ) try . ( d ) came , ( e ) contain , ( f ) too .
II . Fill in the blanks with the correct auxiliary verbs .
( a ) Paras said that he ………….. write the essay .
( b ) Sabiha told me that she …………… come .
( C ) Parvez says that he ……. sing a Hindi song ,
( d ) I wished that I ………….. buy a new bicycle .
Ans . ( a ) could , ( b ) can , ( e ) can . ( d ) could .
E. LET’S TALK
Discuss the following in groups or pairs .
No water , no life .
Pinki : It is rightly said that no water , no life .
Ankit : Yes , you’re right , without water we can’t survive .
Raj : No water means death of all the living creatures .
Pawan : So , we should save the every drop of water .
Q. Write a letter to your friend describing how water can be saved through rain harvesting .
Ans . Dear Ravi ,
You will be glad to know that I have learned how to save water through rain harvesting To harvest the rain water , the houses should be built fitted with slopping roofs fitted with corrugated iron that should be attached to a cement tank on the ground having a tap that could be locked . When rain falls on the roof the rain water is drained to the tank and stored there .
I wish you would be happy to know the process of rain water harvesting , Waiting eagerly for your letter now .
Translate the first two paragraphs of the lesson in Hindi or your mother tongue .
Ans . ( See , Hindi Translation of the Chapter . Translation of the first two paragraph are given there . )
Q. List ways to save water .
Water could be saved if we pay attention towards it . While taking bath we should not let the water run through the tap continuously . We should store water in buckets and then take bath . Same is the case with brushing our teeth . We should take water in a mug or a small bucket and then sit to brush and not to brush under a running tap . We should also save rain water if necessary …