bseb class 10 english notes – GOD MADE THE COUNTRY
bseb class 10 english notes
class – 10
subject – english
lesson 1 – GOD MADE THE COUNTRY
GOD MADE THE COUNTRY
— William Couper
The Poet : William Cowper an English poet was born in the year 1731. It is said that Cowper’s Poems give the reader a taste of William words worth’s poverty. Wordsworth had a liking for the , natural beauty, common man, quite Landscape and Cowper also Follow his foot steps through his poetry. But both Wordsworth and Cowper are alive to the situation and issue of their time.
The Simplicity of the common villagers , the abundance of natural life in the flora and the fauna around villages and their simple living have always inspired poets to write on the life in the countryside.
Comper’s poem is a classic example of this kind of writing. As villages are natural creation , they possess a a natural perfection which towns and cities lack. The everlasting pleasure of villages are always preferable than the artificial luxury and so called comfortable life of the towns.
Summary In English : Through this poem the poet has tried to draw a comprison between a village life with that of a life in big towns and cities. The poet says that actually God made only a country or a village. The nature abounds in the countryside, in the fields and groves. One can enjoy the virtues of life only in villages. One can feel the pleasure of fast flowing wind around and can listen to the birds.
The poet says that the person who live in towns and who normally travel in a car, chariots or sedans do not feel fatigue or tridness but they become idle and are deprived of enjoining the nature’s beauty which is spread over in abundance in the countryside.
The poet says that the groves are planted to give releif to the travellers from the sorcling sun during noon In the evening, the soothing light to the moon slides between the sleeping leaves of the trees. The birds on the trees sing in resounding rythmic musical notes. One can discards the shining lamps lighted in the town Against this soothing effect of the moonlight night. The poet again depicts a situation when the thrush [ a singing bird ] departs after listening to the harse music in the town and the nightingale also gets offended and stops singing.
कविता का सारांश
इस कविता के माध्यम से कवि ग्रामीण जीवन तथा शहरी जीवन का एक तुलनात्मक अध्ययन प्रस्तुत करता है । कवि कहता है कि ईश्वर ने तो केवल गांव बनाये। मनुष्य ने शहरों का निर्माण किया । गांवों में प्राकृतिक छटा चारों ओर बिखरी पड़ी है । इस प्राकृतिक सुषमा को हम खेतों खलिहानों और चारों ओर फैले वृक्षों के झुरमुटों [उपवनों ] में देख सकते हैं ।
जीवन की अच्छाइयों का आनंद हम केवल गांवों में ही प्राप्त कर सकते हैं ।तेज बहती हवा का आनंद तथा मीठे स्वर में गाते पक्षियों के मधुर संगीत का रसास्वादन केवल हम गांव में ही कर सकते हैं ।
कवि कहता है कि शहरी जीवन जीने वाले लोग गाड़ी ,रथ या डोली पर चलते हैं वे थकावट महसूस नहीं करते और आलसी हो जाते हैं पर वे धुमंतु लोगों की तरह चारों दिशाओं में फैले प्रकृति के सौंदर्य का आनंद नहीं ले पाते ।यह आनंद केवल ग्राम्यांचल में ही मिल सकता है । गांवों में वृक्ष इसलिए लगाये जाते हैं ताकि दोपहर की धूप की जलन उनको ना सताये । ये यात्री इन वृक्षों के नीचे शीतल हवा के झोंकों के साथ आनंद प्राप्त कर सकते हैं । रात्रि के समय चांद की मद्धिम रोशनी इन पत्तों के बीच में छनकर पृथ्वी पर एक रोमांचक प्रकाश बिगड़ती है और तब जंगल के बीच पक्षियों का कलरव ,मधुर संगीत बनकर उभरता है। शहरों में जलती बत्तियाँ एक चकाचौंध पैदा करती हैं जो मन को आघात पहुँचाती हैं।
कवि कल्पना करता है कि पक्षियों का तीव्र और शहरों में बजता तीव्र संगीत कलरव सुन सुरीले स्वर में गाने वाला था ‘ थस्रट ‘ पक्षी पलायन कर जाता है और बुलबुल के मन को भी आघात लगता है और वह गाना छोड़ देती है।
GLOSSARY AND NOTES
Abound (verb intransitive ): बहुतायत में होना । Threaten (verb): धमकाना। Sedan (noun): डोली। Fatigue (noun): थकावट । Pensive (Adj): ध्यानमग्न। Thrush (noun): तूती पक्षी , सारिका। Nightingale (noun): बुलबुल। Warbling (verb): सुरीला संगीत , गायन। Chariot (noun): रथ । Groves (noun): बागीचा, उपवन। Draught (noun): वायु का झोंका।
A. Answer the following questions briefly :
Q.1. Do you belong to a village ? Which natural seene and objects there attract you must ?
Ans. Yes, I do belong to a village, My village is situated on the bank of river. The setting of the sun in the west and its colourful rays falling on the river bed affects me the most.
2. Do you belong to a town? What things cause annoyance to you there ?
Ans. We are presently living ina town with our family. The moving crowd and the sound of vehicle running on the road causes a lot of
annoyance to me. I get disturbed, when I walk on the road .
B. Answer the following questions briefly :
Q.1. Where do you find health and virtue ?
Ans. Health and virtue can be found only in the country.
Q.2. Where do you find field and groves ?
Ans. We find fields and groves towards the countryside.
Q.3. What is the source of light in villages in the evening.
Ans. The main source of light in villages in the evening is through the moonbeam which comes sliding saftly between the silent, sleeping leaves of the trees
Q.4. Why is the nightingale mute in a town ?
Ans. The shining lights of big lamps in the town eclipses the softer light of the villages and the harsh songs emanating in the town confuses the nightingale in the town. I make her mute and soundless .
C.1. Long Answer Questions :
Q.1. Why does the poet believe that God made the Country ?
Ans. The poet believes that God made the country because all the natural creations of God are available in abundance in the country like the shining sun, the bearm of the moonlight, the blowing wind, the groves and fields and the sweet music of the birds,.If you have to find virtue and health, that can be found only in the cool and calm atmosphere of a village.
Q.2. Why does the poet believe that man made the town ?
Ans. The poet believes that it is only the man who has made the town because of the town because of the artificiality of the town and it’s environment. The light are un natural, the sound of music are jarring to the ears. The birds stop singing and one cannot find groves and fields where one can walk freely and can enjoy good health.
Q .3. Why is life bitter ?
Ans. Life is bitter for some because they discard the nature and maintain an unnatural life in unnatural surrounding with every thing artificial. They are away from the sun, the moon, the natural air the nature’s gift in the from of trees, vegetarian and lovely songs of the birds.
Q.4. What can make our life sweet?
Ans. Nature makes our life satisfying and sweet through its gifts given to man. The natural sunlight of the sun, the soothing rays of the moon, the flowing wind around, the groves and flids spread over, the singing of birds with harmonious notes all make us happy and give life s sweet feeling .
Q.5. What function so groves perform in a village ?
Ans. The groves give relief to a Wanderer from the scorcling sun during midday sunlight of the sun, the soothing rays of the moon, provides soothing light at night coming through the leaves of the trees in the groves and it allows birds to sit on their branches to sing sweet songs.
Q.6. The birds are scared of sounds. Why ?
Ans. The situation prevails in the town where music creat loud sound and this depends the initiative of the birds. They stop singing as they can’t complete with those louder sound.
C.2. Group Discussion :
Q.1. The village are no longer beautiful and peaceful. Discuss.
Ans. It is said that villages today are no longer beautiful and at the same time peaceful to live. It is not hundred present correct. The situation may very from place to place. If we take the case of our own country, the villages in the worth east, in the south and on the hills are still beautiful, calm and quiet where one can live peacefully and enjoy life. The villages are lighted , the telecommunication facilities are available and through mass media you are connected with the world outside and within the boundary of your own country.
There may be some adverse points regarding the facilities available in the villages like lack of education amongst the villagers, their attitude towards modern living etc. But the would change with the new generation coming up fastly.
Q.2. Towns are Important for the Process of civilization. Discuss.
Ans. Again the subject requires a lot of analytical thoughts. Civilization is a part of Social thoughts that grows in a social set up of a nation or a community. It does not matter whether the unit is urban oriented or rural oriented. Agriculture is a part of village life and equally an important part of the program of civilization. The other factors of growth also combine with the industries. But are can’t keep agriculture outside the study of civilization.
C.3. Composition :
Q.1. You spent you summer vacation at village. Write about the things you enjoyed to there to a friend.
Ans. Dear Mukesh,
I am writing this to you on return from my village, where I spent my summer vacation this time. I passed a very good time over there. If you remember, I had told you to that my native village is situated on the side of a river. The river has a beautiful embankment and it has a natural beauty too. I used to go to the embankment in the morning for a walk with some of my friends in the village. I used to go towards the orchard . The orchard has a number of good mango trees. I enjoyed the good, taste of the mangoes french from the trees. It was the month of May and June and the mangoes had started ripening.
With good wishes.
Kidwaipuri, Patna — 800001
D.1. Word Study :
2. Complete the following sentences with the words given below :
(i) He threatened to beat me.
(ii) Idleness will not let you rise in life.
(iii) Like a Wanderer I just moved here and there.
(iv) Did you taste the sweet dishes.
(V) Having failed in the examination he was in a pensive.
(vi) Charious were the vehicles of God’s and kings.
(Vii) His words offended me and I could not give a correct reply.
Words : threatened, idleness , Wanderer, taste, pensive, offended, Cheerios, confounded.
D.2. Words Formation :
1. A number of verbs are made simply adding into them in the end.
Threat (n) — threaten (v)
Haste (n) — hasten (v)
Light (adj) — lighten (v)
Mad (n) — madden (v)
Strength (n) — strengthen (v)
Now use these verbs in sentences of your own.
Threaten = He has threatened to beat him.
Hasten = He hastened to complete his feature.
Madden = The song sung by A.R. Rahman maddened the crowd.
Strengthen = The untry of the people strengthens the nation.
2. By using ‘ er ‘ in the end of an of an adjective we give it a competitive from.
Soft — softer
Kind — kinder
Sharp — sharper
Thin — thiner
Dark — darker
Thick — thicker
D.3. Match the following words in column ‘A’ with their meaning given in Column ‘B’ .
1. Threaten Exhaustion (2)
2. Fatigue natural quality (3)
3. Element give threat todestory(1)
4. Spare frightened (6)
5. Splendour brilliance (5)
6. Scared to abstain from
E. GRAMMAR :
On occasion we simply two sentences by the use of ‘ and ‘.
Examp. Go made the country, and made the town
We went to the market and we also went to the cinema.
Now join the following sentences with ‘ and ‘.
1. Raju wrote letters. He posted them
Raju wrote letters and posted them.
2. Mother cooked dinner. She served it.
Mother cooked and served the dinner.
3. The teacher taught the lesson. He asked us to do exercises.
The teacher taught the lesson and asked us to do exercise.
4. Ranjan saw a puppy on the street. He brought it home.
Ranjan saw a puppy on the street and brought it home.
5.The boys were playing. They were making noise.
The boys were playing and were making noise.
6. The king gave him land. The queen gave him Jewels.
The king gave him land and the queen gave him jewels.
7. He went to circus. His friends went to the cinema.
He went to circus and his friends went to Cinema.
F. Activities :
1. Make a list of poems in Hindi that deal with village life.
2. Write a short profile of a village you have visited/ the village you belong to.
Ans. To be done by the students individually under the guidance of the class teacher
G. Translation :
Translate the following into English :
1. इस फल को मत खाओ ।
Do not eat this fruit.
2. धूप में मत खेलो ।
Do not play in the sun.
3. बाजार शाम में जाओ ।
Go to the market in the evening.
4. प्रतिदिन व्यायाम करें ।
Have some physical exercise every day.
5. नियमित रूप से अध्ययन करो ।
6. धार्मिक पुस्तकों का अध्ययन करो ।
Read religious books.
7. कुछ समय छोटे भाई – बहनों के साथ बिताओ ।
Spend some time with your younger brother and sisters.
8. रोज कुछ , नये अंग्रेजी शब्द सीखों ।
Read newspaper everyday.
9. रोज कुछ, नये अंग्रेजी शब्द सीखो।
Learn some new English words daily.
10. कमरे की खिड़कियाँ खोल दो ।
Open the window doors at the room.