bihar board 10 english book solutions
class – 10
subject – english
lesson 7 – THE UNITY OF INDIAN CULTURE
THE UNITY OF INDIAN CULTURE
— Humayun Kabir
The Author : The writer is a renowned political thinker and the same time a known literature. He has written novels, poetry and a number of essays which are regarded as landmarks in the field of literature. He had his education in the famous Oxford University of England and had the proved privilege of being elected president of the Oxford University Students Union. He also served as a Cabinet Minister in Jawaharlal Nehru’s ministry.
The present piece entitled ‘ The Unity of Indian culture’ has been taken from his speech delivered in Baroda University. The lecture throws light on the ghorious past of India’s culture and its rich heritage. It reflects the love of this states man towards his motherland which is inspiring .
Summary In English : The author says that for a long time the historians were of the opinion that the Aryans were the earlist or the first invaders of this land known as ‘ Aryavarti ‘. But later research has proved that there were invaders even before the Aryans and it has been established that these invaders had already laid the foundation of civilization which was higher than that of the Aryans. These pre Aryans had even displayed earlier people and had built up new civilization. Some other invaders also made their appearance after the Aryans but lossed as the Aryans had set their foot on this land and were more organized as a fighting raes. The Greeks were followed by ‘ sakas’ and ‘ Huns ‘ and a hundred other nameless tribes. They all came fought but soon became a part of the big community which had already established their supremancy on this land.
The speaker defines that whatever is Indian today say a political institution or a social custom is a bland or combination of so many throughts culture and ideas. The Indian culture has been derived from many sources and it has given a unique growth of unity amongst diversity. The Virility of Indian culture has survived the test of time and has blown through ages to modern era. In fact many different textures, colour and their qualities has been woven in one fabric of national life and that is Indianness.
This unique features of adjustment has given rise to tolerance in the Indian community. Live and let live has become the part and parcel of Indians in all spheres of life. History has brought many changes on this land but it has not been able to affect the unity. The unity has never been a dead uniformity.
The speaker than trows light on culture as an unifying free of a land. He says there is no single character or mark which can define culture. Culture is a phenomenon which expresses itself through language, art, philosophy, religion and through social habits, customs, political institutions and economic institutions. Not one of them is separately culture. The exposition of culture is always collective.
European countries gives us cases of civilization without culture. In India even one casual visitor or tourist from outside most have observed that the difference between the masses and Classes quality. This is just reverse in many European countries.
This remarkable phenomenon is due to the existence of unity and continuity of Indian culture. A steady growth and extension of culture has penetrated through every class and section of Indian Society .
पाठ का सारांश
भूतकाल तक इतिहासकारों की राय में भारत भूमि पर सबसे पहले आर्यों का आगमन हुआ बाद में हुए अनुसंधान से यह तथ्य सामने आया कि आर्यों के आने के पूर्व भी अनेक आक्रमणकारी इस भारत भूमि पर अपना आधिपत्य जमाने आए थे। उन्होंने यहां संभवत की नींव रखी थी जो आर्यों की सभ्यता से कई एक दृष्टियों श्रेष्ठ थी ।आर्यों की चढ़ाई के बाद यहां तक सभ्यता में बदलाव आया। प्राचीन और नवीन के मेल से एक नई सभ्यता का प्रादुर्भाव हुआ । आर्यों के बाद भी कई जन जातियों ने भारत पर आक्रमण किया पर भी आयोग की शक्ति के आगे टिक नहीं पाये। आर्यों ने इस धरती पर अपने पैर जमा लिए थे और लड़ाकू जाति के रूप में अपने आप को संगठित कर लिया था ।इस धरती पर ग्रीकों का आगमन हुआ ।इसके बाद ‘ शक ‘ आये फिर ‘ हुण ‘ आये पर शीघ्र इन्होंने आर्यों के सामरिक बल के आगे समर्पित कर दिया जिन्होंने यहाँ अपना साम्राज्य स्थापित कर लिया था । यह सभी अंनत: भारत के विशाल परिवार के सदस्य बन गये।
लेखक के विचार में आज जो भी भारतीय स्वरूप है या दिष्ट गोचर होता है वह चाहे राजनीति का क्षेत्र हो, सामाजिक रीति-रिवाजों हो या अन्य कुछ सब विभिन्न प्रकार के विचार, संस्कृति और सोच का सम्मिश्रण है। भारतीय संस्कृति का निर्माण अनेक स्रोतों से हुआ है और उसने अनेकता में एकता का अद्भुत उदाहरण प्रस्तुत किया है ।भारतीय संस्कृति की मुख्य विशेषता उसके अंतर में प्रताड़ित होने वाली एकता की धारा है भारतीय संस्कृति की उपयोगिता समय की कसौटी पर खरी उतरी है और अनेक काल खंडों को पार करती हुई आधुनिक युग तक पहुंची है । ‘भारतीयता ‘अनेक गुणों ,रंगों और निर्माण की बारीकियों को साथ लेकर चलती है और राष्ट्रीय जीवन को अनुप्राणित करती है । उसकी संरचना की यह खास विशेषता है।
प्राचीन काल से विश्व के अनेक देशों में सभ्यता के क्षेत्र में परिवर्तन लाने के लिए लगातार पर्यटन होते रहे हैं। विश्व के अनेक देश इस परिवर्तन के प्रभाव क्षेत्र में आकर स्वयं ध्वस्त हो गये। उनकी स्थिति नष्ट हो गयी। भारत में इन परिवर्तनों को अपनी संस्कृति में समाहित कर लिया और यह हमारे अंग बन गये। पर भारत की एकता की अंतर धारा यथावत प्रभावित होती रही।
पारा 5 एवं 6 : समन्वय के इन विशेष गुणों के कारण भारतीय समुदाय में सहनशीलता की अद्भुत शक्ति का समावेश हुआ ।’जिओ’ और जीने दो ‘ भारतीय जनमानस की जीवन शैली बन गई जिस का समावेश यहां के जनजीवन के प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में दृष्टिगोचर होता है। हम विरोधाभास के साथ जीने में विश्वास करते हैं और सहमति और असहमति दोनों का बखूबी निर्वाह करते हैं। इस धरती पर अनेक ऐतिहासिक परिवर्तन होते रहे हैं पर हमारी एकता अप्रभावित रही है।
पारा 7से 9 तक : विद्वान लेखक ने इसके बाद संस्कृति के उन पर प्रभाव डाला है जो समाज को एक सूत्र में बांधती है ।लेखक का कहना है कि संस्कृति को व्यक्त करने के लिए किसी एक या विशेषता को मानदंड नहीं माना जा सकता। संस्कृति ,समाज का एक ऐसा दर्शन भाव है जो अपने आपको भाषा ,कला, धर्म, सामाजिक रीति रिवाज राजनीतिक एवं आर्थिक संगठन के माध्यम से अभिव्यक्त करता है। इनमें से कई एक सास के एकमात्र आधार नहीं है ।
संस्कृति एक ऐसा खिलता हुआ है जिसकी जरी सभ्यता से विकसित होती है। बिना सभ्यता के संस्कृति नहीं बन शक्ति पर ऐसी सभ्यताओं का उदाहरण मिल सकता है जिनमें अभी तक संस्कृति का जन्म नहीं हुआ है। भारत भूमि में संस्कृति और सभ्यता का विस्तार समान रूप से हुआ है । यूरोपीय समुदाय में ऐसे अनेक उदाहरण है जहां सभ्यता का विकास तो हुआ पर संस्कृति का निर्माण नहीं हो सका । भारत में आने वाले एक सामान्य पर्यटक भी इस सच्चाई से अवगत हो सकते हैं कि भारत में जनमानस और विशिष्ट वर्ग में गुणात्मक अंतर नहीं है। सांस्कृतिक धरातल पर दोनों समान गुनिया जानकारी रखते हैं ।कई एक यूरोपीय देशों में स्थिति बिल्कुल इससे भिन्न है या यूं कहें तो उल्टी है ।एक संस्कृति का ज्ञान रखता है दूसरा नहीं ।
भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप का या विशेषता भारतीय संस्कृति की अविरल प्रवाहित होती धारा और एकता के प्रवाह के कारण है। भारत में संस्कृति का विकास और विस्तार सभी वर्गों में समान रूप से हुआ है।
GLOSSARY AND NOTES
Invader (noun): आक्रामक। Barbrian (Adj): असम्य, बर्बरता। Astonish (verb): आश्चचरयचकित होना । Cauldron (noun): गर्म करने वाला। Vicissitude (noun): परिवर्तन, अंतर। Diversity (noun): विविधता। Toleration (noun): सहनशीलता। Vanquish (verb) : जीत लेना। Fervent (Adj): उत्साहपूर्ण। Fantastic (Adj): हठधर्मि। Vitality (noun): चेतना, जीवन शक्ति। Persecution (noun): उत्पीड़न । Culture (noun): संस्कृति। Civilization (noun): सभ्यता। Phenomenon (noun): प्राकृतिक घटना। Extensive (noun): विस्तार, फैलाव। Premeated (verb): प्रवेश करना, व्याप्त होना।
A. Work in small groups and discuss the following :
Q.1. Have you ever found people of another community participation in your festival or Vice Versa ? Narrate your experience.
Ans. In India, it has been generally seen that people of all religions and faith celebrate Holi, the festival of colour which is basically of the Hindus. Friends meet with each other , fine together, the delicacies prepared on the day in the houses of Hindu families and make marry. During I’d festival which is an annual festival of the Muslim community, people meet each other, greet them on the occasion and enjoy ‘ sewaian ‘ of different varieties and taste. This is supposed to be a delicacy specially prepared on the occasion. Similarly when Christmas comes people of all communities celebrate this festival with fervour and gaiety. The lit candles in their houses, decerate their drawing rooms with replice of Christmas tree and photography of Jeans Christ. ‘ Happy Christmas’ is a common greeting exchanged between friends, well wishers and relatives.
B.1.1. Write ‘ T ‘ for and ‘ F’ for false statements :
1. The ‘ Greek ‘ invaders were followed by ‘ Sakkas ‘ and ‘ Huns ‘. [T]
2. The vitality of Indian culture is amazing. [T]
3. The ancient world threw up Fine flowers of civilization in many lands. [T]
4. The old civilization and culture have grown up and changed only in Japan. [ F]
5. The Aryans were regarded as the earliest in invaders of the land. [ T]
6. Give the opposites of the following words :
1. Modern Old
2. Coquer defeat
3. Unity diversity, difference
4. Possible Impossible
5. Dead alive
B.1.2. Answer the following questions briefly :
Q.1. Who has delivered the speech ‘ The Unity of Indian Culture ?
Ans. Mr. Humayun Kabir, a well known essayist and renowned political thinker delivered ,the speech on The Unity of Indian Culture’.
Q.2. How were the Aryans recently till recently ?
Ans. The Aryans were regarded till recently as the earliest invaders this land.
Q.3. How did the pre Aryans build up a new civilization ?
Ans. Modern researches have proved that there were invaders even before the Aryans come to this land. These pre Aryans had displaced still earlier people and built up new civilization.
Q.4. What according to Author is the most remarkable of Indian culture ?
Ans. The underlying unity amongst the people of this land is one of the most remarkable features of Indian culture.
Q.5. Were have old civilization and culture grown and changed ?
Ans. The ancient world threw up Fine flowers of civilization in many lands. It is surviving only in Indian and China. It is only India and to some extent China that the old civilization and culture have grown or changed but not at the cost of an underlying Unity.
B.2.1. Answer the following questions briefly :
Ans. What has been the Policy of the main, characteristics of Indian history throughout the ages. Live and let live’ has been the Policy of the Indian in all spheres of life.
Q.2. What is preferable to fanatic devotion ?
Ans. Toleration is the key note of Indian life. This has led to suffering at times but has been maintained through endurance. Such tolerance is preferable to the fanatic devotion which lead to the denial of all other values over its own.
Q.3. Which spirit underlines the changes of Indian history?
Ans. A remarkable features of the unity of spirit has been found in the Indian culture throughout the ages. A sense of Indianness has imposed his unity amongst all diversity . This has woven into one fabric of national life apart from different texture, colour and the quality and characteristics of individual social setup.
Q.4. How does Humayun Kabir define culture ?
Ans . As per Humayun Kabir culture is the essence of civilization. Culture expresses itself through language and art, through philosophy and religion, through social habits and customs and through political in stitution and economic organizations.
Q.5. How does Humayun Kabir define civilization ?
Ans. Civilization is the organization of society which creates the Condition of culture. There in European countries the difference in quality between the masses and Classes is at times very great. It has shaken the faith of the faith of the followers of democracy.
B.2.2. Match the words given in Column ‘A’ with the their meaning given in Column ‘B’.
1. Countrary (b) (a) good quality(2)
2. Virtue (a) (b) opposite (1)
3. Single (e). (c) Part (4)
4. Section (c) (d)development (5)
5. Growth (d) (e) alone (3)
C.1. Long Answer Questions :
Q.1. What in your opinion are the characteristic features of Indian culture ?
Ans. The characteristic features of Indian culture are :
(a) Spirit of underlying unity.
(b) Sense of Indianness.
(c) Unity in diversity.
(d) Social readjustment as and when necessary .
(e) Tolerance. ” Live and let live”.
Q.2. How is Indian culture different from the cultures of other countries ?
Ans. The Indian culture as it is seen today has taken shape from many derivation and many sources coming through ages. But all this sources have added to its unity of spirit. It is only in India and to some extent in china that the old civilization and culture have grown and changed but never grown at the expense of an underlying unity. What specially distinguishes the culture of India is unbroken continuity. There has been no violent or sudden breaks and the extension of culture has slowly passed through every class and section of society.
Q.3. Explain clearly the different between culture and civilization ?
Ans. Culture is the expression of civil society and exposes itself through language and art, through philosophy and religion, through social habits and customs and through political institutions and economic organizations. Collectively they constitute the expression of life which we describe as culture. Civilization is the organizations of society which creates the Condition of culture. There can be no culture without civilization but there may be civilization which have not yet developed their culture.
Q.4. What is the capacity of adjustment exhibited in the Indian society ? Is is the strength or the weakness of Indian society ?
Ans. The ancient had thrown fine flowers of civilization in many lands. They all are dead except in India and China. It is only in India and to some extent in china the old flower of civilization has grown, taken shape and changed but not at the expense of underlying unity. This has been possible through the capacity of adjustment in the Indian society. And this is the strength of Indian society. This uniformity in diversity is the strength of our social system and culture.
Q.5. Discuss the main ideas contained in the text.
Ans. The main idea contained in the text are :
1. The Aryans were not the first invaders of the land. There were invaders even before the. Aryans came and they had evolved a civilization which was higher than the Aryans.
2. The underlying unity is the most remarkable features of Indian culture. In spite of a thousand changes taking place, it has survived to the modem day.
3. Sense of Indianness and unity in all diversities has established the fabric of national life.
4. ” Live and let live ” has been the Policy of all Speers of life.
5. Toleration is the key note of our national character.
C.2. Discuss the following in groups and pairs :
Q.1. Is the capacity of readjustment on wave in the contemporary society ?
Ans – Points : 1. Flexibility is the key factor of Indian society. The Indian society easily adopts the new ideas coming from different sources but at the same time tries to preserve its old values.
2. India is advancing towards new world. The new world. The new technology is sharply overtaking our day today life but our festivals are celebrated through same passion and fervour as earlier.
3. The Indian society is festly adopting scientific method of cultivation to grow more from the builds of feed the growing population but at the same time we want to put a check on the fast growth child birth beyond a limit.
4. The Ganga is regarded as the scared river of India.
It is supposed to be the culture life line of our century.
We worship Ganga but at the same time are concerned about the pollution of the sacred water of this land.
Q.2. ” Live and let others live “.
Ans. 1. This is the theory of co- existence. We want to alive but not at the cost of others. This is seer selfisness in which our country has no faith.
2. Human race is one and the humanity should guide all the human being on this earth.
3. God is the creatr of all men and women and all living bodies of the universe. They all are useful for us hence we have to alive with all.
D. Words Study :
D.1. Correct the spelling of the following words :
1. Infuson Infusion
2. Altitude Attitude
3. Fervant Fervent
4. Excception Exception
5. Consept Concept
6. Voilent Violent
7. Lenght Length
8. Taksture Texture
D.2. Make ten words using the suffix ‘ ion ‘ like.
1. Tolerate toleration
2. Civilise Civilization
3. Infuse infusion
4. Persecute Persecution
5. Organise Organisation
6. Forest. Afforestation
7. Conserve Conservation
8. Deviate Deviation
9. Devote Devotion
10. Vaccine Vaccination
D.2. Fill the blanks with the words given below :
Followed, amazing, civilization, remarkable, efflorescence blend.
1. The pre Aryans built up a new civilization.
2. The Greek invaders were followed by sakes.
3. We kind a amazing unity of spirit in Indian culture.
4. The vitality of of Indian culture is equally amazing.
5. Indian social custom is a blend of many different strains and elements.
6. Culture is the offlorresce of civilization.
D.5. phrases :
Read the lesson carefully and find out the sentences in which the following phrases have been used.
1. A bland of second sentence
2. In Fact third sentence
3. At times fifth line
4. In spite of first line
5. On the countrary third line
E. Grammar :
Active and passive voice
Example 1. Read the following sentences taken the lesson carefully .
Ex.1.1. Now change the following sentences into passive voice.
1. People loved Gandhiji =Gandhiji was loved by people.
2. Police caught the thief red- handed = The thief was caught red-handed by the police.
3. Thieves all the money all the money = was taken away by thieves.
4. Some one stole my watch = my watch was stolen by some one.
5.people think that the earth is round = The earth is round is the thinking of the people.
Ex.2. Read the sentences will be as :
1. I gave the boy of pen.
2. Tom given me the money by Tom.
The passive form the two sentence will be as :
1.The boy was given up in by me .
2. I was given the moneyby Tom.
Ex.3. Look at the sentence given below and then do the exercise that follows :
(i) i am to do it [Active ] It is to be done by me [ passive ].
(ii) Sonu has to give me money [Active ] = I have to be given money by Sonu [ Passive ].
Now change the following sentence into passive voice:
1.my teacher has to teach me= I have to be taught by my teacher.
2. Robin had to buy a car= A car had to bought by Robin.
3. My father is to plant the tree = The tree is to be planted by my father.
4. Full have to save the forest = The forests have to be saved by people.
5. Who have to save the blind =The blind have to be saved by us.
6. Kamal kishor is to sing a song= A song is to be sung by Kamal Kishore.
Ex. 4. Now study the sentences give below and then do the exercise .
(i) Who did it ? = By whom was it done .
(ii) When do you take milk ? = When is milk taken by you .
(iii) Do you sing a song ? = Is song sung by you .
(iv) Help me = I may be helped .
(V) Give me your book please = You are requested to give me your book please.
F. Activities :
Q.1. Collect a few folk songs which the people of your community sing on different occasions.
Ans. There may be many Folk songs connected with ‘sneakers’ like :
1. Birth ceremony [ Chhathi ].
2. Upnayan [ Sacred thread caremony ].
3. Vivah [ Marriage Ceremony ]
Folk songs connected with season like :
1. Holi , 2. Chaite, 3. Varsha me feet, 4. Greeshm Ritu ke feet.
Q.2. Write a short report on the preservation of the culture heritage of your state.
Ans. First of all and exhaustive list of cultural heritage sites in the state should be prepared. There are so many sites in Bihar .They are of historical importance and there are a few which are of culture importance too like old temples mosques, Curudwaras some buildings which are of arcuival value . The sites many be located under the guidance of the teacher and a report may be prepared on the information gathered. The information mean may be collected about articles in the book, magazines and journals or by visiting the sites.
G. TRANSLATION :
Translate the following passage from the lesson into Hindi :
Culture is the efflorescence of civilization .Civilization is the organisation of society which creates the condition of culture. There can ,therefore ,be no culture without civilization ,but there may be civilization which have not yet developed their culture . Perhaps what is more often case is that there are civilized people among whom only a small session have achieved the culture. We have, therefore, had and still have races and Nations that are civilised; but, except for India ,we have not it had any nation or phrase that could be regarded as cultured in all its sessions and classes ,for there in India culture is almost as extensive as civilization.
Ans. संस्कृति की उत्पत्ति सभ्यता से होती है। सभ्यता समाज की वह सोचना है जो संस्कृति के निर्माण का कारक बनती है ।बिना सभ्यता के संस्कृति का आगमन संभव नहीं परंतु ऐसी संभावनाएं हो सकती है जिनमें संस्कृति का विकास नहीं हुआ है । ऐसा बहुधा पाया गया है कि एक शब्द समाज का एक लघु छोटा समुदाय की सांस्कृतिक ऊंचाई को प्राप्त कर सका है । विश्व में अनेक जातियाँ है जो सभ्य कहीं जाएँगी परंतु भारत के अतिरिक्त ऐसा कोई सभ्य राष्ट्र नहीं है जिसमें संस्कृति का फैलाव प्रत्येक क्षेत्र में दिखाई पड़ता है ।भारत में संस्कृति का विस्तार सभ्यता का अनुसरण करता हुआ ही आगे बढ़ा है।