10th english

bihar board class 10 english solution | PACE FOR LIVING

THE PACE FOR LIVING

bihar board class 10 english solution

class – 10

subject – english

lesson 1 – THE PACE FOR LIVING

THE PACE FOR LIVING
—R.C. Hutchinson

SabDekho.in

The Author : the write in this essay entitled “The pace for  Living ‘ has tried  to capture the agony of modem man. The writer feels that the modern day’s life has become very best. The life is far the thinking is fast, the the movement is very fast and this speed affects the normal rhythm of mankind. This  results in undue pressure on men, women and children of present time.
The  whole subject has been nicely explained in a feeturized way in total five paragraphs of the essay.

Summary In English :  The writer starts by saying that he once saw a play in a theatre in the city of Dublin. In this the main character was an elderly com -merchant. He used to live in a small Irish country town.  The poor man had lot of anxieties in life and at the same time he was of weak heart. His naphew used to cheat him and his wife had the habit of spending ten pounds on a holiday. This used to put a lot of pressure on this weak hearted person. In a movement of agony and disepair he once cried from the core of his heart saying that “they tell me there is an aeroplane which flies at a speed of 1000 tell me there is an aeroplane which flies at a speed of 1000 miles an hour but that is too fast. This was most Mushalafor that elderly man and that is why he expressed his dislike for  that speed.
The write says that this line of thought expressed by the man may sound as a comic of the play but it was the best example of the way the lrish get at this fine truth of life. It  revealed their innet thoughts and their most unlikely approach towards life.
In the third paragraph the writer says that it is not his disapproval for the rapid movement of today’s life. He says that he enjoys driving at ninety miles per hour, si long he is not driving his own car. He loves to dine in London and take lunch in New York next day.  He further says that fast driving and fast movement deprives one’s pleasure journey. The pleasure of travelling in a country bus in Somerset or Spain is an unique experience of life but driving at fast speed his an excitement. Our ancstors were deprived of this pleasure is at fact to be admitted. The writer says that the pace of today is nowhere unfriendly because our mind gets accostoured to the speed of the machine. The writer though admits that he belongs to tribe of slow thinkers. He says that he will get the lowest marks in an intelligence because he says that all modem time tests are designed to measure the speed of mind rather than intelligence. He feells that the slow thinkers like him are handicapped in getting a good living.
The writer gives an example of going to a cinema. Once he went to see a picture in a cinema hall with his wife and after every two to three minuter he had to tum to his wife and  ask “Is this the same girl as the one we saw in the beginning. ” And she whispers back. ” No there are three girl in this film a tall blouse a short blouse and blouse and a medium sized brunette. The hero is  that person who takes his hat off when he covers indoors. He is going to fall in love with B, C, A in that order. ”
Your mind most work in high gear to understand the rapid changes of scene and action of the film. Now a days the people think faster than the people thirty years ago. Those who do not try to think fast now a day may not get another chance in this world to think at all. That means they will be left behind in the run of life of today.

पाठ का सारांश

लेखक ने निबंध का आरंभ इस बात से करता है कि एक बार उसने डबलिन नगर के एक थियेटर में एक नाटक देखा था। इस नाटक का मुख्य पात्र एक अधेड़ भुट्टा बेचने वाला व्यापारी था। वह आयरलैंड के एक छोटे से शहर में रहता था। इस बेचारे के जीवन में अनेक समस्या थीं और उसके ऊपर से वह कमजोर  दिल का भी था। उसका भतिजा प्राय: उससे पैसे ठग लेता था और उसकी पत्नी को खर्च करने के लिये , त्योहार के दिनों में कम – से – कम दस पाउण्ड की रकम की आवश्यकता पड़ती थीं। इससे उस कमजोर हृदय के व्यक्ति पर अनावश्यक दबाव पड़ता था और वह विचलित हो उठा था। जीवन की इस तीव्र गति से सामंजस्य बैठा पाना उसके लिए कठिन होता।
कभी – कभी वह घबड़ाकर चीख उठता। लोग कहते हैं कि आज हवाई जहाज 1000मील प्रति घंटा की गति से उड़ता है। उसके लिए यह अजीब सूचना होती । उसे मनुष्य की यह गति बिल्कुल पसंद नहीं आती थी।
उस अधेड़ व्यक्ति की यह उक्ति , उसके उद्गार शायद उस नाटक का एक हास्य – प्रसंग जैसा लगे पर आज के आयरिंग लोगों के जीवन की एक सच्चाई को अभिव्यक्त करता है। यह कथन उनकी अंतर – आत्मा की सोच को भी उद्घाटित करता है।
अपने निबंध के तीसरे पाराग्राफ में लेखक कहता है कि वह आज के जीवन की गति को अस्वीकार नहीं करना चाहता। लेखक कहता है कि उसे नब्बे मील प्रति घंटा की गति से गाड़ी चलाना अच्छा लगता है लेकिन उसकी यह शर्त होती है कि उसे इस गति से अपनी गाड़ी चलाना पसंद नहीं । उसे लंदन में रात का भोजन और दूसरे दिन खाना, न्यूयार्क में लाना भाता है। अगर आप समरसेट या स्पेन में किसी ग्रामीण बस – सेवा से यात्रा करें तो उसका एक अलग ही आनंद आपको प्राप्त होगा। पर तेज गति से गाड़ी चलाना एक अलग आनन्दातिरेक की अनुभूति होती है। हमारे पूर्वज इस सुख की अनुभूति से वंचित रह गये थे। लेखक कहता है कि आज के जीवन की गति कहीं भी अस्वीकारणीय नहीं है क्योंकि हमारा मस्तिष्क तो मशीन की गति को आत्मसात कर लेता है।
लेखक पुनः कहता है कि वह उस जनजाति का प्राणी अपने को मानता है जिसके सोचने की गति धीमी है। लेखक कहता है कि मेधा शक्ति के परीक्षण में उसे सबसे कम नम्बर प्राप्त होगा क्योंकि आज का परीक्षण , मेधा शक्ति से ज्यादा , मस्तिष्क की गति का परीक्षण होता है।
लेखक को यह अस्वीकार करने में संकोच नहीं कि उसकी तरह आज के युग के मंद गति के विचारकों को जीवन में आराम और सुख कम ही मिलेगा।

GLOSSARY AND NOTES

Dicky(adj.) : कमजोर दिल वाला। Fanciful ( noun) : कल्पनाशील । Despair ( verb): निराश होना। Illustration ( noun): उदाहरण। Adore(verb): पूजा करना। Superficial (Adj): सतही, छिछला। Devastating (Adj): पूर्णतया विनाशकारी। Brunette (noun): काले बालों वाली महिला। Lesprit de I’ escatr (Ph): मन्द बुद्धि। Fantastic (Adj.): बेढंगा। Notion ( noun): विचार, मत , सोच। Gratefully ( Adj.): कृतज्ञतापूर्वक। Cursed ( verb): शाप देना।

EXERCISE

A. Work in small groups and do the following :
Q. 1. Talk to your friends and seek their opinion on the life-style of the modern youth :
Ask them :
(i) Do you find life leisurely or pacy ?
(ii) Are you satisfied with what you see today  ?
Ans. The life is fast and pacy today. Everybody is a huriy to day from morning to evening.b Nobody has time to share the sorrow of others. Even within the four walls of a house we are living like guests. The child gets up the morning and after beeing ready goes to school. Father at that time is in bed. When the boy returns from school, the father is out  for office. At night when father returns from office, the boy had already gone to sleep.
We are travelling  through fast rather fastest modes of convenience. There are fast cars on the road, the trains are running in superfast speed and the aeroplanes are flying  with supersonic speed.
We are wasting our valuable time sitting before a T. V. Screen for longer time. Some of the programmes are not worth viewing. The provide cheap entertainment but we get glued to the T. V. Screen for nothing.
Due to fast life style more and more people are falling sick mentally and physically. The incidence different types of incurable diseases are increasing day by day and the man is becoming helpless become thir own creations.
It is most painful and unsatisfying as we are getting away from nature and natural environment.

B.    Answer the following questions briefly :
Q. 1. Where did the writer watch the play ?
Ans. He watched the play in a city called Dublin.
Q. 2. Who was the chief character in the play ?
Ans. The chief character was an elderly com-merchant in a small Irish Country town.
Q. 3. Does the writer dislike repid movement in every field ?
Ans. The writer  enjoys driving car at ninety miles an hour. To dine in London and lunch in New York next day is a satisfying experience for him. But the writer alos admits that such fast driving excludes all the red pleasure of travel. It is  most exciting to travel in a country bus in Somerset or Spain.
Q. 4. In  which situation , the writer finds himself in the cinema ?
Ans. The writer says that when he goes to see a picture. He finds himself confused because he is unable to establish the identity of a character. The change of scene and action in th picture is fast and he fails to associate himself with the changing scene and situation.
Q. 5. How does the writer classify himself as a thinker ?
Ans. He feels that most of the follow  viewers in the cinema think fast enough to keep up comfortably with rapid changes of scene and action. Whereas he fails that his mind does not wook in high gear in such situation.
C. 1. Long Answer Questions :
Q. 1. Write a few sentences about the elderly Corn merchant.
Ans.  The  writer describes the Com- merchant like this :
1. He was a man of many anexietis.
2. His heart was dicky .
3. His nephew used to cheat him and his wife had the habit of spending ten dollars on a holiday.
4. It was very- very difficult for him to keep pace of life.
Q. 2. “They tell me there is an aeroplane now that goes at 1,000 miles an hour. Now that ‘s too fast.” What light does the remark of the Corn- merchant throw on the pacy life today.
Ans. The Com- merchant was unable to keep pace with  the fast growing pacy life. He could not imagine of the fast pace of an aeroplane flying at the speed of 1,000 miles an hour. That was too much for him .
The writer says that this illustration gives an insight into the approach of am lrish. Who is living in the present but thinks of the past.
Q. 3. What sort of excitement do we have today which our ancestors lack ? Is it an advantage or disadvantage ?
Ans. We have fast moving mode of conveyence today through road, through rail and through air. We can dine in London and take unch in  New York next day. Similarly we have fast means of communication the mobile, the fax, the internet and telephone services through satellite can connect us with any part of the world in seconds.
These facilities were not available to our ancestors. We have to follow the pace of the machines today.
I feel this is an advantage of the modern age. Man today cannot do without this.
Q. 4. Who are taken to be slow thinkers ? How are the slow thinkers handicapped today ?
Ans. The writer puts a sarcastic remarks by  saying that he belongs to the tribe of slow thinkers. He says that he will get the lowest marks in an intelligent test because such tests today measure the speed of mind than anything else. That is why the slow thinkers like me [the writer} are deprived of good living.
The writer further says that the use of mind or rather speed of mind is required more in the field of entertainment today. He cites the example of a cinema where the scene and action changes rapidly and the viewer is required to keep pace with the changing sence on the screen.
Hence the slow thinkers today are handicapped.
Q. 5. What enlightenment does the writer seek from his wife. How does it suggest about the plight of the modern man. ?
Ans. The writer says that when he goes to see a picture he finds himself totally confused regarding the movement of characters on the screen. Who is Who amongst the  heroines and who is the actural hero amongst the male characters ? There the writer is  supposed to get help from his wife, sitting next to him. Here one is supposed to think in best gear to keep pace with the changing scene and action. If one does not think fast now plight of the modem man.
Q. 6.  Summarise the central idea of this essay.
Ans. The central idea of this essay is to throw light on the fast mode. The technology is changing everyday. The new technological advancements affects the life of man. The old technology becomes obsolate and a new technology takes over. Man has to keep pace with the changing world of today otherwise he will be left behind in the race and will have to repent for the loss after some time. The new generation will feel the pinch.
Q. 7. Why  is yoga so popular in America ? Give two reasons.
Ans. 1. Yoga tunes mind with body. It ensures rhythmes functioning of body with pinctuning of mind.
2. Due to very fast live of the Americans and their materialistic attitude towards life they are suffering from mental fatigue, depression and accumulating so many other problems which gives rise to so many health problems.
Yoga streamlines their life and so they are adopting yoga to solve these problems which medicine has not been able to cure.
C. 2. Group Discussion :
Discuss the following in groups or pairs :
1. The life has become two pacy today.
2. The fast life of the Western society is compelling the westerners to turn to India.
Points for Discussion :
1. The life is becoming pacy today and the pace is increasing day by day.
2. The pace has given rise to competition in all walks of life.
3. The coming new technology is adding to the pace. The thinking brain i.e., computer, the supersonic jet, the satellite and the modern communication system, the best running vehicle on the road, the modern media are all adding to the pace.
4. The world moves on tips of fingers and the world is connected. One can gather the information from any corner of the world.
But this piece is also adding agony to the society. There is a competition in the world to become super power which is giving rise to war threats.
What the man needs is more peace, more happiness of mind and a healthy body. We have faish in welfare and happiness to all enmity to none. So the westerners are looking towards India for a better world and a peaceful society.
C.3. Write a letter to your mother about a hectic day you spent.
Ans.
A letter to mother.
       Patna,the 8th
        August,2010
My dear sweet mother,
Forgive me for writing to you after a long time. As my examination is getting near. I am finding it difficult to find time to write to you.
Mother! now a days the classes are running in full speed and I can not afford to miss a single class.
By the time I return to my room, I feel tried and exhausted. A s I was taking rest. Himanshu came for a discussion and we had two hour Discussion on the lesson taught today in physics. Then I went for my dinner in the mess. After I returned, I had to  prepare some work to be presented to the teacher next day . I took a lot of time and I could go to bed only at 11:30pm. So for the whole way I had ba busy time and schedule.
I am otherwise fine and particular about my studies. Give my regards to papa and love to sanu, Monu and Sarita. With regards,
      Yours Loving
         Mr. Avkash
Smt. Neha Sharma
R.K. Colony, Shahganj
Patna

Q. 2.  As the secretary of the Drama society of your school, write a notice to invite students to watch a play in Hindi. Mention the title of the play , it’s writer, the vennue and the time.

NOTICE
The Dramatic society, st. Xavier’s school is staging a historical play entitled ‘pear Ali’ written by the noted Hindi playwright,  Dr. Chaturbhuj on 15th August, 2010 at 6.30 PM. in the Dramatic society Hall of the school on the occasion of Independence Day.
You are requested to watch the play with your parents on the data and encourage the artistes.
Please take your seat 15 minutes before the start of the play.
Secretary Dramatic society , st. X’ viers school.
D. Word study :
Dictionary Use :
D.1. Correct the spelling of the following word :
Incorrect                        Correct
1. Phantastic                 Fantastic
2. Ansestors                  Ancestors
3. Complent                    Complaint
4. Great fully                    Gratefully
5. Ninth                                Ninety
6. Garantid                           Granted
D. 2 Word- Formation :
Look at the words of Latin or Greek origin and the way new words arevderived from them without adding prefix suffix.
E.g. mind        —   mental
ears         —       aural
long          —    lengthy
eyes          —    ocular
King          —     royal
moon       —      lunar
Sun          —     solar
Use these words in your sentences :
1. Mental     — Mental peace is key to good health.
2. Lengthy.    — His statement was very lengthy.
3Royal.           —  He comes of a royal family.
4. Aural.          — He has got some aural problem.
5. Ocular.        — Ocular test is necessary to find out vision problem.
6. Lunar.          — Lunar eclipse takes pace at least once in a year.
7. Solar          — Solar energy can solve the power problem of the country.
D. 3. Word Meanings :
A                           B
1. Notion(f)              (a) A group of people of the same race
2. Despair (c)           (b)  A preconceived idea
3. lIIustration (c).     (c) state of hopelessness
4. Greatefully (e).       (d) Example
5. Trife.                       (e) with a feeling of gratitude
6. Prejudice(f)           (f) An idea
E. Grammar : Look at the sentences given below :
(i) I enjoy swimming.
Swimming is an object here.
(ii) Swimming is a good exercise.
Here swimming is the subject of the sentence.
(iii) My job is swimming.
Here swimming is a compliment.
(iv) My friend is found of swimming.
Here swimming is the object to preposition.
(V) I saw him the swimming god,moving swifty across the deep and fast current. Here swimming is an apposition to pronoun ‘him’. It is obvious that swimming is used as a subject to an object, a compliment, an object to a preposition and an apposition to a pronoun.
The verb ending’ ing’  [here swimming] which functions as a noun is called ‘ gerund’ or verbal noun. It can be used as a subject to a verb , an object to a verb, a compliment and a noun in apposition.
Ex. 1. Now use the verbs as gerund’ given in brackets :
(i) Tom stopped (work) working.
(ii) My father doesn’t enjoy (go) going to a doctor.
(iii) (see) seeing is (believe) believing.
(iv) I like (swim) swimming in this river.
(v) (Fly) Flying planes is not an easy job.
(vi) I like (watch) watching games.
(vii) I don’t like (wait) waiting here for an hour.
Ex. 2. Look at words taken from the lesson which begin with capital letter.
Dublin,  Batterh sea, London, Somerset, Harish, John Stuart, Bed Fort., Taj Mahal. High street, Spain.
These words are the names of places. Persons or objects. They are known as proper nouns. The first  better of a proper noun is always capital. Now correct the following sentences using capital letters where necessary :
(i) I went to (del his) Delhi and stayed there for three days.
(ii) I spoke to (  Rajan) Rajan about my  visit to my shore.
(iii) We went to ( delhi university) Delhi University via (Aruna Asaf Ali marg)
Aruna Asaf Ali Marg.
Ex.3. Read the following sentences from the lesson.
1. Whisper, “Is this the same girl as the one I saw at the beginning ?
And she whispers back ” No there are there girls in this film.”
Mark that the first letter of the first word within inverted comma  (direct speech) in both sentences is capital Now correct the following sentences using capital letters where necessary.
(a) I said  to johm. “do you see films ?”
I said to John”. Do you see films ?
(b) John said to me. “My  brother is ill.”
John said to me. ” My brother is ill” .
(c) Mohit said to his father, ” please get me a new shirt.
Mohit said to his father,” please get me a new shirt.
(d) Rajendera  asaid to his brother ” do not waste your time in idle gossiping”.
Rajendra said to his brother. ” Do not waste your time in idle gossiping.”
(e) sanjay fold his mother, ” in delhi I will buy a hand beg.”
Sanjay told his mother: ” In Delhi will buy a hand bag.”
Ex. 4. Look at the following sentences.
(a) I said, “Is this the same girl as the one we saw at the beginning ?”
(b) I sasked if  that was the same girl as the one we had seen at the beginning.
Mark the differences between the two sentences :
the one (a) in the direct speech and the other (b) in indirect speech :
(a) Reporting verb ‘ said in (a) is changed into ‘ asked ‘in (b)
(b) The inverted comman (“…..”) in(a) is omitted in (b)
(c) ‘this’ in (a) ischanged into ‘that’ in (b)
(d) ‘we saw’ in (a) is changed into ‘we had seen’ in (b)
wecan, therefore, infer the following rules for changing direct speech into indirect one.:
1. If the reporting clause ( clause which is not within inverted comman i.e., “I said” in the sentence (a) above is in the past tense, the tense of the Reported speech (clause which is within inverted comma, i.e., ” Is this the same girl as the one we saw at the beginning ?”
(a) He said, “I play football. “(Simple present Tense)
= He said that he played football. ( Simple past)
(b) she said to me. Rekha is singing. ” (Present Continuous)
= She told me that Rekha was singing. (Past Continuous)
(c) Ravi said, “I have seen a tiger. ” (Present perfect)
= Ravisaid that he had seen a tiger. ” ( Past perfect)
(d) My friend said, “It has been raining for five hours. ” ( Present perfact Continuous)
= My friends aid that it had been raining for five hours. ( Past perfect Continuous)
(f) He said to me, “I was playing. (Past Continuous)
= He said to/told me that he had been playing. (Past perfect Continuous)
2. The person of the pronoun used in Reported Speech is changed as follows :
(a) It’s person in reported speech is changed according to the person of the subject of the reporting clause,; e.g.
He said to me, ” I saw a tiger. ”
= He said to me that he  had seen a tiger. (” I” changes into ” he” because the subject of reporting clause is “he”)
( b) 2nd person in reported speech is  changed according to the person of the object of the reporting caluse,; e.g.
He said to me , ” you have been selected for the job ”
= He said to me that I had been selected for the job. (“You” changes into “I”because the object of the Reporting clause is in the first person)
(c) 3nd person pronoun in the Reported speech is not changed.
He said to me, ” she has been selected for the job.
= He said to me that she been selected for the job.
3. Words showing/expressingnearesd are generally changed into words showing/expressing distance,; e.g.,
now        —        then
here         —      there
ago.         —     before
Last         —     Previous
here         —       that
Today      —     that the
Tonight    —     that night
Yesterday —    the previous day
Tomorrow  —   the following day/
the next day
a day before yesterday — two days before
a day after tomorrow— in two days’ time
Next week —  the following week
Ex. My friend said to me, ” I shall meet you tomorrow.
My friend said to me that he would meet me the following day.
Or, My friend told me that he would meet me the next day.
4. There are certain rules which are specific to certain sentences_ Assertive, Imperative, Interrogative, Optative and Exclamatory.
5.  Assertive Sentence; to change an assertive or Declarative sentence into Indirect speech . We have to make changes as follows :
a.      Change the reporting verb say (said) into tell (told) if it is followed by an object; e.g.
My friend said me,” Water boils at 100°c.”
My friend said to me that water boils at 100° c.
Ex.5. Change the following statements into Indirect from of speech:
1. My mother said, ” I may rain.”
My mother told me that it might rain.
2. I said, ” I can do it.”
He said that he can do that.
3. The culprit said to the judge, ” I am innocent”.
The culprit told the judge that he was innocent.
4. Mukul said to me, ” You don’t help me.”
Mukul told that I do not help him.
5. Vinayak said to Amar, ” You will play tomorrow.”
Vinayak told Amar that be would be playing tomorrow.
6. Rajan said,” You are doing well.”
Rajan told him that he was doing well.
7. ” We shall help the poor,” Arif said to Lata.
Arif said to Lata that they would help the poor.
8. My teacher said to me,” You are doing well.”
My teacher told me that I was doing well.
9. ” He does not sing well” The teacher said to the Principal.
The teacher reported to the Principal that he does not sing well.
10. She said, ” He has not seen the Taj Mahal.
She said that he has not seen the Taj Mahal.
11. My teacher said, ” The sunrises in the east.”
My teacher said that the sun rise in the east.
To work on it, incorporate it in different lesson.




F. Activities :
1. Make a list of items which have made human life Luxurious and pacy.
Ans. 1. Fast mode of convenience like: Aeroplane Fast moving trains. Fast vehicles.
2. Five star hotels and food plazas.
3. Difference type of consecutive items and perfumes.
4. T.V. and other mode of entertainment.
5. Air conditioners and other room coolers and appliances.
6. Cooking range being used in houses.
7. Fast mode of communication like telephone mobile , fex, computer etc.
G. Translation : Translate the following passage into Hindi :
उदाहरणस्वरूप जब मैं कोई पिक्चर देखने जाता हूँ तो अपने – आपको भ्रम की स्थिति में पाता हूँ। दो – तीन मिनट तक पर्दे पर ध्यान केन्द्रित करने के बाद मुझे अपनी पत्नी से पूछने की आवश्यकता पड़ती है— ” क्या यह एक लड़की है जिसे हमने आरंभ में देखा था ?” और वह फुसफुसाकर मेरे कानों में कहती है — ” नहीं , इस फिल्म में तीन लड़कियाँ अभिनय कर रही हैं एक वह लड़की , जो गोरी है और जिसके बाल सुनहरे हैं। एक छोटे कद की गोरी लड़की और एक वह माध्यम कद की काली लड़की। उसे तुम सुविधा के लिये ‘ ए ‘, ‘ बी ‘ और ‘ सी ‘ कह सकते हो। वह ‘ बी’ , ‘ सी ‘ और ‘ ए ‘ के साथ बारी – बारी से प्यार करता है।”
और इस प्रकार यह बात सिद्ध होती है कि आपके मस्तिष्क को चपल गति से सोचने की आवश्यकता पड़ती है। आप मंद गति से भी पिक्चर देख सकते हैं पर मुझे लगता है कि मेरे साथ पिक्चर हाॅल में सिनेमा देखने वाले दर्शक उच्च या तीव्र गति से सोचने की क्रिया करते हैं ताकि क्षण – क्षण बदलते दृश्य और अभिनय को आत्मसात कर सकें ।  वें शायद आज तीस वर्ष के पूर्व के लोगों से ज्यादा गतिशील होकर सोचते हैं। शायद  ऐसा इसलिए है कि आज अगर आप रास्ते पर चलते समय तेजी से न सोचें तो फिर आपको इस दुनिया में दुबारा सोचने का अक्सर उपलब्ध नहीं होगा ।
उसका सीधा – सादा अर्थ है कि आप काल की गति के चक्के में दब जाएँगे और फिर दुबारा सोचने के अवसर से आप वंचित रह जाएँगे ।

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