bihar board 9th class english note
class – 9
subject – english
LESSON 2 – YAYATI
Introduction: This story of Yayati, a king of ancient India has been taken from the story of the Mahabharat which was written by Maharishi Vedvyas, the great schooler of that time.
This party story of ‘ Yayati’ has been taken from a book entitled ‘ Spiritual stories of India ‘ which was compiled by Chman Lal and published by ‘Publication Division of India, an unit of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Govt. of India. The English version given here has been rendered by C.Rajagopalachari, a scholar in himself and the last Governor General of India.
ययाति की यह कथा प्राचीन भारत के एक सम्राट की कथा है। यह कथा ‘ महाभारत ‘ नामक पौराणिक धर्मग्रंथ से ली गयी है जिसके रचयिता महर्षि वेदव्यास थे। महर्षि वेदव्यास उस काल के उद्भट विद्वान और आचार्य थे।
इस पुस्तक में संकलित ‘ ययाति ‘ की यह कथा — ‘ स्पीरिचुअल स्टोरीज आँफ इंडिया ‘ नामक पुस्तक से ली गई है जिसके संकलनकर्ता श्री चमनलाल हैं और यह पुस्तक भारत सरकार के सूचना एवं प्रसारण मंत्रालय की एक इकाई- प्रकाशन संभाग द्वारा प्रकाशित की गयी है ।
अंग्रेजी में लिखी इस कथा के रचयिता हैं—श्री सी. राजगोपालाचारी जो स्वयं एक अद्वितीय विद्वान थे और भारत के अन्तिम गवर्नर जेनरल के पद को उन्होंने सुशोभित किया था ।
SUMMARY IN ENGLISH
Yayati was one of the necestors of the famous characters of ‘ Mahabharat’. Yayati was a religion person who had all faith in God and who had respect for his ancestors. He used to follow the norms of the ‘ Shastras ‘ for good governance.
Unfortunately, just at very young age, he became old due to the curse of Shukracharya who was the Guru of demons [राक्षस ]. It was because Yayati had misbehaved with Divyani, daughter wife of Shukracharya. The curse of becoming old suddenly at very young age saddened the king. His desire of life remained unfulfilled. He cherished to enjoy the pleasures of a youthful life of which he was deprived due to sundenly becoming old.
One day he called his five sons before him and expressed his misery to them. He told his sons that he has become permanently old due to the curse of Shukracharya. It was very sad that he could not enjoy the best part of his life i.e., the youth. Now it is your duty to help your father. One of you have to bear the burden of my old age and give me your youth in return. The one who will take this responsibility will be crowned as king in my place.
All the four sons declined the offer of their father one by one . Then the king turned to his fifth son Puru who had never refused the orders of his father. Yayati told puru to take all the infirmities of his old age for some time. He promised his son to return back the youthful life after a while and will bear all the burden of old age taking back the sorrows of old age.
Puru as an obdient son readily agreed to the proposal and relieved his father of sorrows and agony of old age.
Puru became the king and acquired the responsibilities of the great kingdom.
Yayati became free to enjoy life and later went to the garden of kubera, the king of wealth. He enjoyed the the pleasure of living with an apsara, a beautiful damsels [युवती ] for a long time. But even this heavenly pleasure could not quench his desire. His lust [ लिप्सा ] went on rising like fire.
Realising the truth, he came back to his son and said. “Son ! Desire is never quenched by indulgence.” Desire creates Futher desire and it is impossible to fully satisfy humanly desire even with gold, woman, cattle or anything. Man has to shed desire and has to go beyond likes and dislikes to attain peace of mind. I have realized the truth of life. Now you take back your youth and rule the kingdom with vigour and youthful ability.
With this yayati took back his old age and retired to the forest to lead a peaceful life of his own. Puru regained his youth and become the full fledged king of the kingdom renounced by Yayati.
SUMMARY IN HINDI
ययाति जो इस कथा के केन्द्रबिन्दु हैं, पाण्डवों के पूर्वज थे । ययाति की धर्म में आस्था थी, वे ईश्वर में विश्वास करते थे और अपने से बड़ों का आदर करते थे। राजकाज चलाने में वे शास्त्रों द्वारा प्रतिपादित नियमों का अनुपालन करते थे। अपने जीवन में उन्होंने कभी हार नहीं मानी थी ।
दुर्भाग्यवश अपने युवाकाल में उन्हें वृद्धावस्था का अभिशाफ सहना पड़ा। कहा जाता है कि ययाति ने राक्षस के गुरु शुक्राचार्य की पत्नी ( पुत्री ) देवयानी से दुर्व्यवहार किया था जिससे क्रुद्ध होकर शुक्राचार्य ययाति को वृद्धावस्था की यातना सहने का श्राप दे दिया। असमय में वृद्धावस्था से ग्रसित हो जाने के कारण ययाति असीम मानसिक संताप की पीड़ा सहन करने को बाध्य हो गये। उनके जीवन की अनेक मनोकामनाएँ अतृप्त एवं अधूरी रह गयीं। वे अभिशप्त जीवन जीने लगे। युवाकाल के सुखों से वंचित रहने की पीड़ा उन्हें सताने लगी।
इस असह्य पीड़ा को अपने मन में दबाए उन्होंने एक दिन अपने पाँचो पुत्रों को बुलाया और अपनी बखान किया। ययाति ने अपने पुत्रों से कहा कि जीवन का जो सर्वश्रेष्ठ काल होता है, वह युवाकाल है और वे असमय उस सुख का भोग करने से वंचित कर दिए गए। मेरे इस संताप को मिटाने में तुम्हारे सहयोग की आवश्यकता है। तुम पाँचों में से किसी एक को मेरा ये बुढ़ापा वहन करना होगा और अपनी जवानी मुझे देनी होगी। तुम पाँचों में से जो भी इस कार्य में मेरी सहायता करेगा, वहीं राजा बनेगा और यह राजमुकुट धारन करने का अधिकारी होगा।
पाँच पुत्रों में से चार ने, कोई न कोई कारण देते हुये पिता के इस प्रस्ताव को अस्वीकार कर दिया। अन्तिम बारी पाँचवाँ पुत्र की थी। पाँचवाँ पुत्र पिता का आज्ञाकारी पुत्र था। उनसे कभी भी पिता के आदेश की अवहेलना नहीं की थी। ययाति ने अपने पाँचवें से कहा कि वह पिता का बुढ़ापा ग्रहण कर ले और इस प्रकार बुढ़ापे के संताप से उसे मुक्त कर दे। कुछ दिनों के बाद वह पुनः बुढ़ापा वापस ले लेगा और आजीवन बुढ़ापे के कष्ट और दुःख के साथ जीवन-यापन करेगा।
आज्ञाकारी पुत्र, पुरु ने पिता की इच्छा का सम्मान किरते हुये अपनी जवानी को अर्पित कर दी और स्वयं वृद्धावस्था के अभिशाप को आत्मसात (ग्रहण) कर लिया। पुरु राजा बन गया और राजा के दायित्वों का निर्वहन करने लगा।
ययाति स्वच्छन्द और पुरुष जीवन जीने के लिए स्वतंत्र हो गया। वहाँ ययाति को सुन्दर अप्सरा के साथ वास करने का सुख मिला पर उसकी तृष्णा शांत नहीं हुयी। तृष्णा की आग में वह मन और शरीर-सा झुलसाने लगा। अग्नि में दी गयी घी की आहुति की तरह उसकी कामेच्छा बढ़ती गयी।
फिर ययाति को अचानक ज्ञान हुआ कि उस कामना को तृप्त करना कठिन ही नहीं असम्भव है। फिर उनसे अपने राज्य को लौट जाने का निर्णय लिया।
अपने राज्य वापस आकर उनसे अपने पुत्र को कहा— “मेरे पुत्र ! मनुष्य की इच्छा अनन्त है। इसे आसक्ति से तृप्त नहीं किया जा सकता। मनुष्य की इच्छा को धन, दौलत, पशुधन या स्त्रीधन की प्राप्ति से शांत नहीं किया जा सकता। मनुष्य को शान्ति तभी मिल सकती है जब वह अपनी इच्छाओं का त्याग करेगा। मैंने जीवन की उस सच्चाई को जान लिया है। तुम अपना यौवन वापस ले लो और इस सम्राज्य पर आजीवन, नई चेतना, शक्ति और साहस के साथ शासन करते रहो ।
यह कहकर ययाति ने पुनः बुढ़ापा ग्रहण कर लिया और संन्यासी बनकर जंगल की ओर चला गया ताकि वह शान्ति के साथ शेष जीवन जी सके। पुरु पुनः युवा बन गया और उस राज्य का पूर्ण स्वामी बन गया।
Glossary : शब्दावली
Ancestors (n) — पूर्वज, Dictate (n)— आदेश, आज्ञा, Venerated (ad v.)—आदर देना, सम्मान करना, Prematurely (and v.)— समय से पूर्व, कालपूर्व Curse(n)— शाप देना, Wronged(n)— दुर्व्यवहार , Bidding (n)—आदेश, Mock(v)—हँसी उड़ाना, उपहास करना, Plight(n)—दुर्दशा, Supplicated (v)—अनुनय-विनय करना, विनयावनत।
SHORT ANSWER TYPE
B.1.1. Answer the following questions briefly:
Q. 1. Who was Emperor Yayati?— Yayati was one of the ancestors of Pandavas.
Q. 2. How did Yayati became old? Who cursed him— Yayati became prematurely old by the curse of Shukracharya. Yayati had Wronged his wife Devyani which enraged Shukracharya.
Q.3. Was Yayati devoid of sensual desire— Yes Yayati was devoid of sensual desires as he became old prematurely.
Q.4. What was the reply of his eldest son— The eldest son replied:”O great king, woman and servants will mock at me if I were to take upon myself your old age. ”
Q. 5. Why did he become angry?—
The king grew angry when he saw that his three sons had declined to do as he wished.
B.1.2. Answer the following questions briefly :
Q.1. What are the symptoms of an old man?
Ans. It destroys beauty and brings miseries in life. The pleasure of young age bites the soul of old man when he recollects his colourful young age.
Q.2. Who was Puru? Did he accept his father’s personal ?
Ans. Puru was the fifth and youngest son of Yayati. Yes, he did accept the proposal of his father.
Q.3. Sensual desire is everlasting. Whose thought is this?
Ans. This is thought expressed by Yayati.Yayati expressed this though after he realized that the lust for material pleasure is non ending.
Q. 4. Why did Yayati resumed his old age ?
Ans. Because the realized that pleasure of youthful life is never satisfied. One can attain mental peace by discarding his desire.
Q.5. Do corn, gold, cattle and woman satisfy the desire of man?
Ans. Nothing can never satisfy the desire of man.
B.1.3. Answer the following questions briefly:
Q.1. What was Yayati famous for?
Ans. Yayati had faith in God. He had regards for his ancestors. As a ruler, he always looked after the welfare of his subjects.
Q.2. Why did Yayati call his sons?
Ans. Yayati called his sons to help him to overcome the misery of leading an old man’s life prematurely cursed by Shukracharya.
Q.3. What did he say to them?
Ans. He told them to bear the burden of his old age and give him his youth in return. One who will agree to his proposal will be the ruler of his kingdom.
Q.4. Which son agreed to give Yayati his youth and take his age ?
Ans. The youngest son Puru agreed to bear the old age of his father and give his youth to him.
Q.5. Why did Yayati go to the garden of kubera ?
Ans. After exchanging youth from his son. Yayati enjoyed life for long but was not fully satisfied. Hence he decided to go to the garden of kubera and spent many years with an apsara, a beautiful damsel.
LONG ANSWER TYPE
Q.1. Why did Yayati become prematurely old? Why did he dislike it ?
Ans. Yayati misbehaved with Divyani wife (daughter) of Shukracharya. This enraged Shukracharya and he cursed him to become old. The power and beauty of his youth suddenly disappeared and he became an old man to lead the life of misery and agony.
Q.2. In order to enjoy the pleasure of youth, Yayati wished to take the youth of one of his sons. Was he right in doing so? Explain with arguments of your own.
Ans. It is different to establish whether Yayati was right or wrong in asking his sons to give their youth to him. The question was to make sacrifie for the pleasure of his father. Perhaps Yayati would not have realized the truth of satisfying the unending desire of a man unless he would have gone into this process of finding turth and real pleasure of life.
Q.3. Write in your own words the response of the first three sons to their father’s request.
Ans. The response of first son was that woman and servants in the house would mock and laugh at him.
The second son begged to be excused on the plea that he does not have enough strength to tolerate the agony of old man’s life.
The third son felt that an old man can not ride a horse or elephant and his speech will also falter. He would start stammering which would be ridiculous.
Q.4. How did the fourth son respond to his father’s appeal? How would you have responded if you were the fourth son ?
Ans. The fourth son begged to be excused as he could by no means accept his dictat. He felt that an old man has to take help of others to keep his body clean which is quite pitiable.
Q.5. Why did Puru agree to give his youth to his father and take this father’s old age in bargain? Did he do the right thing?
Ans. Puru was an obdient son of his father. Puru had never apposed the wishing of his father. He thought of taking away the agony of his father and thus paying back the ‘pitri Rin ‘ an act which gives one solace and peace in this would an world an well as in the heaven.
Puru acted rightly in the circumstances which was put before him.
Q.6. Is it right for a father to make such a request to his sons as Yayati did ?
Ans. This is a matter of time, age and situation. This may have been right during the period of Yayati. This may not be acceptable in today’s time. Then again the proposal of exchange of youth with old age itself sounds ridiculous in the modern scientific way of life.
Q.7. Were the four sons justified in refusing their father’s request? If yes,give reasons.
Ans. The answer is yes. The whole story would not have evolved [taken shape], if the first or the second son would have accept the proposal of their father. It is part and parcel of the building of the story.
Q.8. What lesson do you learn from this story ?
Ans. The first lesson the story gives is that the life is short lived. Everybody has to grow young and old. Decay and death are the truth of life.
The second lesson it gives is that one should not run after pleasure of life which never gets satisfied.
C.2. Group Discussion
Elderly people are assets of
nation. Do you agree ? Give reasons.
[To be organised in the class by the teacher.]
Q.1. Write a paragraph in about 100 wards on ” Relation between parents and sons”.
Ans. The Relation between sons and parents should be very cordial and soothing. As the parents love their children, the sons should have respect towards their parents. In fact, the parents are always eager to see their children achieving the best in life. They work had for their development.
The children should speakout about their difficulties regarding studies, health, likes and dislikes so that the parents are able to take action in time to overcome their shortcomings. This will help in their proper development and progress.
The parents should also be ready to interact with their children so that both and understand. Other band each other and come out the proper problems the during of their career.
Message : Telegram
A telegram is a brief message sent by telegraph in emergency thought post and Telegraph Department. Only key words of message are written.
A example is given below with a format.
Name and address. House no.
123A, Sector 5. Bokar
Massage : REACHING FIFTH OCTOBER INSTEAD FIRST (Stop.)
DELAY DUE CERTAIN EMERGENCY HERE (Stop.)
Not to be telegraphed :
Lane No. 8, SHRI KRISHNA NAGAR, PATNA.
D.1. Dictionary use
Ex.1. Correct the spelling of the following words:
Vigor — Vigour
Pityful. — Pitiful
Releve — Relieve
Bestuw. — Bestow
Induljence. — Indulgence
Ex.2. Write two meanings of the following words the one used to in the lesson and the common.
Word. Meaning as used. Common
In lesson. Meaning
Defeat. पराजय हार
Desire कामना इच्छा
Restrict संयम नियंत्रण
Affection स्नेह प्यार से
Pleasure सुख अराम
D.2. Word Formation
1. Making adjectives from nouns by using suffix, ‘ ous ‘ , ‘eous ‘ or ious.
2. Making new worlds from the following verbs by using suffix ‘ ment ‘.
Verbs New words
D.3. Ex.1. Word meaning
1. Morally good Virtuous
2. Painful felling piteously
3. People from whom Ancestors
One is descended
4. Respected deeply Venerated
5. Command Commanding
Ex.2. Fill in the Blanks with words given below:
1. I finally gave my consent to
my father’s proposal.
2. I saw a maiden standing at the gate of my school.
3. We should not mock at any
4. He cursed me and I became
5. Your face is covered with
wrinkle. Are you getting old.
6. Then patient did prematurely.
7. Virtuous men will go to heaven.
8. Excuse me, I am not at your
1. Have had: page 13 para – 3
I have had enough pleasure in life.
2. Fell of: page 13 Para 3:2.
I want to enjoy the full fell of life.
3. By no means : page -15 para – 8.
By no means it possible for me to
accede to your proposal.
4.Take upon oneself : page – 14 para – 4.
I will take upon the responsibility
5. Take up : page -15 para -7.
I will take up this problem with my teacher.
6. Give back : page -15 para – 7.
I shall give back the money after some time.
7.In due course : page -15 para -12.
In due course you will realize your
Sequence of Tenses
There are two main rules with regard to the sequence of Tenses.
(1) If the verb in the principal clause is in the tense, according to the sense needed to express.
I know What he does.
Or what he is doing.
I shall know What he has done.
What he has been
What he did.
What he was doing.
What he had done.
What he will do.
What he will be doing.
What he will have done.
(2)If the verb in the principal clause is the past tense. The verb in the subordinate clause must also be in the past tense; e.g.
I know what he was doing.
He worked hard so that he in the might suggest.
(3) However, there are some exceptions to this rule:
(i) Clause in the past tense; e.g.,
The teacher said that the earth is round.
He said that man is mortal.
(ii) If the verb in the subordinate clause in introduced by the Conjunction’ then’ the verb of the clause may be in any tense, there is past tense in the principal clause, e.g.
Ha liked her batter than he like
They helped us more then the help their own children.
(iii) if the subordinate clause is an Adverbial Clause of place or Reasons it may be in any tense according to the sense implied; e.g.,
He failed because he has poor health .
We most remember that the conjunction ‘ lest ‘ is always followed by ‘ should ‘ : e.g.,
He wards hard lest he should fail.
(4) The conjunction ‘ as if ‘ and ‘ as though’ always take ‘ were ‘ or V2 (i.e.; past from of verb ) In the subordinate clause, whatever the tence of the principal clause may be; e.g.,
He speaks as if he were mad.
He speaks as if he know
Translate the Following sentence in Hindi.
1. Rajeev was going to market when it started raining.
राजीव बाजार जा रहा था जब वर्षा होने लगी।
2. Seema is cooking food now.
सीमा अभि खाना पका रही है।
3. When the doorbell rang. Abhinav was working on his home work.
जब दरवाजे की घंटी बजी तो अभिनव अपना ‘ गृहकार्य ‘ कर रहा था।
4. Siya is trying to go abroad for studies.
सीया आगे कि पढ़ाई के लिए विदेश जाना चाहती है।
5. Does be want to go to market with his mother ?
क्या वह अपने माँ के साथ बाजार जाना चाहता है ?
6. Mr. Avkash is going out for fishing with his son today.
श्री अवकाश पुत्र के साथ मछली का शिकार करने जा रहे हैं।
7. Anshu is a naughty boy. Isn’t he ?
अंशु एक नटखट लड़का है तुम्हारी क्या राय है?
8. Oh! What a hot day it is ?
ओह! आज कितना गर्म दिन है ?
9. Where you ready to come and play with me.
क्या तुम मेरे साथ खेलने को तैयार हो ?
10. Siya said ” I am felling hungry”.
सीया ने कहा — मुझे भुख लगी है।