bihar board class 10 english notes
class – 10
subject – english
lesson 6 – ONCE UPON A TIME
ONCE UPON A TIME
— Toni Morrison
Summary In English : This piece entitled ‘ Once upon a time ‘ is an extract of a speech delivered by Toni Morrison. Toni Morrison through his speech has tried to explain as to how the practice and usage of language can bring big revolution in the world. The immediate sorrounding also gets changes also changes through the use of a particular language.
The knowledge gets absorbed through and at the same time it entertaining . He emphasises that the language should be living and vibrant.
The writer has tried to prove his point through a short story starting. ” Once upon a time here was an old woman, blind but wise. May be it was an old man, a guru who used to treat restless children.
But in the version he had read it was a woman who was the daughter of a slave , black American and lived in a house out of town. In her tribal community she was regarded as a high priest whose words were law. She could make and break the law at the same time. Her fame had reached beyond the boundary of her neighbourhood.
One day same young people came to her place with the intention of disproving her power to see beyond. They also wanted to prove that she has no super natural power and she plays a fraud. They stood before her and one of them puts a question to the blind woman.
” Old woman, I hold in my hand a bird . Tell me whether it is living or dead ?” She does not answer and the question is repeated. The blind woman can’t see her visitors. She only knows through their voice that there is something in there hands. Apart from this nothing the bird you are holding is dead or alive but what I do know is that it is in your hands.” I chose to read the birds as” languages” and the woman as a ” practiced writer”.
The young visitors want to know from the blind woman as to what it is to be a woman so that we may know what it is to be a man. What it is to have no home in this place . To be away from the one you knew. What it is to live at the edge of towns that can not bear your company. So many other questions were also asked from the old woman.
She does not open her mouth. When the children finish speaking the woman breaks into the silence and says.” Trust you now, I trust you with the bird that is not in your hands because you have truly caught it. Look How lovely it is this thing we have done together.”
The writer comes to the conclusion through this story that language is common way of communication and it moves both ways.
पाठ का सारांश
वंश अपऑन ए टाइम शिक्षक इस निबंध के रचनाकार टोनी मैरिसन है श्री मनीषा ने अपने इस रचना के माध्यम से यह बताने की चेष्टा की है कि भाषा के प्रयोग के माध्यम से किस प्रकार कांति समाज में लाई जा सकती है एक भाषा के प्रयोग सेस्थानीय तौर पर भी सामाजिक परिवर्तन संभव है भाषा ज्ञान का संचय करता है और साथ-साथ या मनोरंजन का सशक्त माध्यम भी है भाषा के महत्व को रूपायित करने के लिए विद्वान लेखक ने एक कहानी को आधार बनाया है।
लेखक कहता है— किसी जमाने में एक वृद्ध महिला रहती थी वह महिला आंधी थी देख नहीं सकती थी पर सुन सकती थी।वह एक ब्लैक अमेरिकन की बेटी थी जो कभी गुलाम था। बुढ़िया नगर के बाहर अकेली एक कुटिया में रहते थे अपने का वलियों में इस महिला का बड़ा आधार था। उसकी बातों को आप लोग कानून की तरह मानते थे और कानून का निर्माण तथा उसे ध्वस्त करने का सम्मान अधिकार उसके पास था। एक दिन कुछ युवक उसके घर में अचानक आग दमकते हैं उनका एकमात्र उद्देश्य था, उस बुढ़िया की पराशक्ति को पराजित करना और उसे धोखेबाज सिद्ध करना। वे आकर बढ़िया से सीधा प्रश्न करते हैं — यह वृद्ध महिला! मेरे साथ में एक पक्षी है क्या तुम बात बता सकती हो कि या जीवित है या मृत? बुढ़िया बिना उत्तर दिए चुप रहती है।युवक अपना पश्न पुनः दोहराता हैं। वह वृद्ध महिलाओं ने आगंतुकों को देख नहीं पाती है।वह केवल उनकी आवाज से ही उन्हें जानने पहचानने की कोशिश करती है और यह भी अनुमान लगाती है कि उनके हाथ में कोई वस्त्र है। पर वह जीवित वस्तु है या मृत बताना बुढ़िया के लिए असंभव था।वृद्धा हनुमान की दुनिया का सहारा छोड़कर उस यंत्र का सहारा लेती है जिससे वह सा अनुमान के आधार को मूर्त रूप दिया जा सके।
यहांँ लेखक कहता है कि उसके हाथ का पक्षी ,भाषा है और बुढ़िया एक लेखिका। दोनों के संयोग से कोई मात्र मूर्त रूप लेता है। लेखक आगे कहता है— गुड़िया के पास आगे नहीं थी पर भाषा थी भाषा की अपनी विशेषता है कि जहां चीजों को आंखें नहीं देख पाती, भाषा उसे सहज में देख लेती है।यह भाषा का गुण है। लेखक कहता है” भाषा ध्यान का स्वरूप है।”
अंत में अपनी हार स्वीकार करते हुए युवा, बुढ़िया से कुछ अन्य प्रश्न पूछते हैं। महिला होने का क्या माने हैं? इसीप्रकार पुरुष होने का क्या अर्थ है? आप अपने लोगों से दूर, शहर के बाहर एकांतवास क्यों करती हो ?यहाँ तुम्हारा कोई साथ देने वाला क्यों नहीं है? उसका रहस्य क्या है ? युवा उस वृद्धा के रहस्यात्मक वातावरण से पर्दा उठाना चाहते थे?
अंत में बुढ़िया बोलती है— मेरा तुम पर विश्वास दृढ़ हो गया ।यह सच्चाई प्रकट हो गई कि तुम्हारे हाथ में कोई चिड़िया नहीं है ।तुम्हारी बातों से यह स्वत: स्पष्ट हो गया और हम दोनों ने मिलकर इस तथ्य और सत्य को उजागर किया ।यह सत्य कितना अनोखा कितना प्यारा है।
लेखक इस आलेख के माध्यम से भाषा की शक्ति को उजागर करता है और इस बात को स्थापित करता है कि भाषा का प्रवाह संप्रेषण के क्रम में दोनों तरफ से होता है।
GLOSSARY AND NOTES
Lore (noun): ज्ञान, विद्या। Soothing (Adj): शांत करने वाला। Culture (noun): संस्कृति। Transgression (verb): नियम का उल्लंघन। Clairvoyat(noun): डाँटना। Encounter (noun): मुकाबला। Miasma(noun): सड़न। Peer ( noun): विचारक। Assertions ( noun): दृढ़तापूर्वक कही बात। Itch(noun): खाज, खुजली। Placenta(noun): नाल। Cider (noun): सेब का मदिरा।
A. Work in small groups and pairs and discuss the following :
Q.1. Stories have been the source of different information from the memories .
Points : 1. A number of informations that we gather about the society, history and culture and tradition are tradition are through stories told by the old people to the new younger coming generation. This passes from one generation to the other and reaches to the present age.
2. The stories of Ramayana , Mahabharata and of different mythology are good source of information.
3. We listen to the stories, we read in the books and pass on to the young ones.
Q.2. It is always perceived that the art of story telling has been only about kings and queens. But the glorious culture and the passing this could be very easily observed in stories.
Ans. Yes, A number of stories based on nature, environment and cultural background fund in Sanskrit and other old literatures of other languages provide us vast knowledge and are very good source of information.
The technique of story telling, story writing has undergone a lot of changes and it has crossed the barrier of kings and queens.
B.1. Answer the following questions briefly :
Q.1. How was the old woman ?
Ans. She was blind but wise.
Q.2. Is this folk lore prevalent in one culture or many ?
Ans. The writer says that he has heard this story or one exactly like this in the lore of serveral cultures.
Q.3. Who is the father of that old woman ?
Ans. The father of this old woman is an American who is slave and is black in colour.
Q.4. Where does the old woman live ?
Ans. The woman live alone in a small house outside the town.
Q.5. How is her reputation for wisdom and explain the term ?
Ans. Her reputation for wisdom is without question. Among her people , she’s both the law and its transgression .
Q.6. What position she hold among her people ?
Ans. She was paid high honour and commanded respect which used to travel beyond her nightbourhood to for off places.
Q.7. What is her position in the eightbourhood ?
Ans. She hold feeling of respect in the neighbourhood as well as beyond that.
Q.8. Who visited the old woman one day ?
Ans. One day the woman is visited by some young people.
Q.9. What was the purpose of visit of those people?
Ans. The purpose of visit of those people was to disprove that she had the power to see beyond and thus they wanted to prove that she used to play fraud.
Q.10. What was the plan of those people ?
Ans. According to their plan, they enter her house and ask one question, the answer to which different totally from their view point and thus they wanted to prove that she was not empowered to answer the question and this was her profound disability.
Q.11. What is the different between the old woman and those people ?
Ans. The difference is that of vision. The old woman can listen but can’t see while those people could listen as well see.
Q.12. What does the old woman know about these people ?
Ans. She does not know anything about these people expect their motive. She does not know their colour, gender or homeland even.
Q.13. What was the reaction of the young people when was silent for long.
Ans. As the old woman did not reply for long.
Q.14. What was the answer of the old woman ?
Ans. She answered, ” I don’t know whether, the bird you are holding is dead or alive, but what I do know I do know is that it is in your hands”.
Q.15. The young visitors are reprimanded for which conduct of theirs ?
Ans. For parading their power and her helplessness, the young visitors are reprimanded. They were told that they are responsible not only for the act of mockery but for sacrificing a life to achieve their aim.
Q.16. What one understands by ‘bird’ as languages and the woman as a practised writer.
B.2. Q.1. Who are they according to the writer’s perception ?
Ans. They are the representative of the Urban society.
Q.2. According to the writer the future of language was in whose hands ?
Ans. The future of language is in the hands of young people, the future generation of the Society. She says the future of language is yours.
Q.3. What according to the writer could have been the purpose of visit of such people ?
Ans. Blessed with blindness, the old woman could speak the language, which could describe the pictures without seeing it. This reveals the power of language.
Q.4. When one is young how one see language ?
Ans. They see language as means to know the things particularly the culture and the heritage of a community.
Q.5. How is language interpreted by the old woman.
Ans. It is a means to see without pictures. Language along protects us from the scariness of things with no names. Language along is meditation.
C.1. Long Answer Questions.
Q.1. Enumerate the traits of the old woman’s character on the basis of the text.
Ans. The distinguishing features of the nature of the old woman can be put under the following characteristics.
(a) She is wise.
(b) She was blind but had inner wisdom.
(C) Her reputation for wisdom could not be challenged.
(d) Among her people she was both law maker and beaker.
Q.2. The art of story telling is going down. Have you recently heard a story which is interesting ? Write I. 100 words.
Ans. Yes, it is correct that the art of story telling is slowing fading out, ‘ Name our Dadi’ ki Kahani are things of past. The modern media, particularly electronic media has taken over the role of presenting stories through pictures. The boys and girls are more interested in watching stories of TV . Telling and Histening stories are not prevalent today.
Even then of some boys aur girls had a chance of listening to some story in their houses or elsewhere they can make a collection and white that down.
Q.3. Do you think that language is crucial to a writer ? give any their reasons .
Ans. 1.Language can Store through written or unwritten method.
2. Language is used as mod of communication .
The writers taughts can be communicated thought language.
3. Language can be used both as verse and prose.
4. Picture in words can be produced through language.
Q.4. Quote a few lines from the text which highlights the plight of women and depressed classes?
Ans. The woman in the the daughter of selves, black American and lives alone in a small house outside of town .”
no.2. ” The intelligence of rural prophets is the source of much amusement.”
Q.1. Discuss any modern story which highlights the recent cultural events and development.
Ans. This can be done by the students under the guidance of their teacher individually.
Q.2. Stories that we hear as children are remembered for even. Relate any such story form your memory.
Ans. A story which I had litened; I was child is represented below:
There was an old woman living on the earth , long – long ago. She had two sons. The name of the elder son was’ Sooraj’ and younger’s name was ‘Chand’. Both were loving children of the old woman. The old body used to work throughout the day to earth for their livelihood . She used to spin cotton wool to make thread on her revolving wooden wheel.
One day her both sons went for a dinner in their neighborhood . It was a grand party and they had sumptuous dinner. The elder. The son came back with full belly and empty hand . The younger one saved some food from his share and returned home with eatables saved for his mother. Mother got overwhelmed with the affection of her son towards mother. She blessed her that from today onwards you will please everybody with your coolness and calmness and the people would great you with smile on their face wherever they will see you shinning . Since that day the sun is burning and the moon is something.
C.3. Prepare a speech on the occasion of heaving received a prize for writing a story.
Respected chairman, distinguished guests, brothers and sisters.
First of all let me expressy deep sense of gratitude for this award given to me on my story. I feel so overwhelmed by this affection bestowed on me by the honourable members of the jury. And all the committee members.
I had never imagined that this short of mind will create a sympathy and liking amongst the readers and all. I shall feel happy is this narration of the is able to create able to create awareness in our society. I shall keep my efforts alive through more stories for the benifit of our society.
Thanks you once again. Thank you very much.
D.1. Words study: Correct the spelling of the following words:
D.2.2. Study the following sentences.
” Tell us a about a wagon load of slaves, how they sang so softly their breath was indistinguishable from the following snow”.
Mark how indistinguishable is made of distinguish (v.t.) prefix ‘ in’ and suffix ‘ able’.
Now make five more words using ‘ in’ as prefix and five words ‘able’ as suffix.
In door In disputable
D.3.1. Words Meaning : Match the words or phrases in Column (A) with their meanings in Column (B).
1. Amusement (b) (a) Statement of Account
2. Version (a) (b) Pastine
3. Violate (d) (c) Mental view
4. Speculation (c) (d) To break
D.4. Once upon a time is a phrase used in the text.
Find the more phrass from the text the text and use in sentences of your own.
Source of amusement = The playing children are always source of amusement.
Hold laughter = It is difficult to hold laughter on certain describtion.
Soft but stern = She spoke in a soft but stern.
Assertion of power = He dropped an itch through his reply to the question.
From mouth to mouth = The story spread like fire from mouth to mouth.
E. GRAMMAR :
Different punctuation marks have been used in this paragraph from the text. Identity the passage given below :
‘ Old woman, I hold in my hand a bird. Tell me whether it is living or dead”.
She does not answer and the question is repeated is the bird I am holding living or dead still she does not answer she is blind and can not see her visitors let alone what is in their hand she doesn’t know their colour, gender or homeland.
Ans with punctuation work :
She doesn’t answer, and the question is required, ” Is the bird I am holding living or dead ? Still she does not answer. She is blind and can not see her visitors, let alone what is in their hands. She does not know their colour, gender or homeland. She only knows their motive.
F. ACTIVITIES :
Q.1. Try to tell story to a group of small children.
Ans. To be organised in the class.
Q.2. Collect a few phrases such as ” once upon time”. Which are frequently repeated in stories.
a. Long – Long ago, there was a king .
b. A long time ago, Ashok ruled this country.
c. As early as, tenth country BC Alexander invaded India.
Q.3. Collect the details of the Noble Laureate of the present session.
Ans. To be collected by the students with the help of Year Book, 2009.
Q.4. Collect stories in your local dialect, translate in English and tell in Your class.
Ans. To be organized by the class teacher in the class.
G. TRANSLATION :
Translate into Hindi.
One day the woman is visited by some young people who seem bent upon disproving her clairvoyance and showing her up for the fraud they believe she is . There plan is simple, they enter her house and ask the one question the answer to which rides solely on her difference from them, a different they regard as a profound disability, her blindness. They stand before her and one of them says, ” Old woman, I hold in my hand a bird. Tell me whether it is living or dead.
Ans. एक दिन कुछ नवयुवक उस महिला के पास पहुँचे। वे उस महिला में अन्तरनिहित
भविष्य द्रष्टा की शक्ति को अस्वीकार कर देना चाहते थे और इस प्रकार उसके धोखा देने की प्रवृत्ति को उजागर कर देना चाहते थे। उनकी योजना अत्यंत आसान एवं सरल थी। वे उस वृद्ध , अन्धी महिला से जो प्रश्न पूछने जा रहे थे उसका उत्तर नकारात्मक ही होता क्योंकि वह महिला अंधी थी और किसी प्रकार इस प्रश्न का उत्तर नहीं दे सकती थी।
वे उस महिला के आगे खड़े होते हैं और उनमें से एक प्रश्न करता है— ऐ वृद्धा महिला ! मेरे हाथ में एक चिड़िया है, तुम क्या यह बता सकती हो की चिड़िया जीवित है या मृत ?